Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard

  • Contact Information
  • My Story
  • Publications & Presentations
  • Background
  • Interests
  • Grants
  • Advising
  • Courses Taught
  • Outreach

Title Environmental Archaeologist
Address 719 South Hardin Hall
3310 Holdrege Street
Lincoln NE
Phone 402-875-2863
FAX 402-472-2946
E-mail kreinhard1@mac.com
Vitae Download file
Contact Preference


Office Hours

M, R 2:00 - 5:00 PM HARH 32


I am Karl Reinhard, professor in forensic science in School of Natural Resources. I am also a fulbright commission senior specialist in botanical archaeology and served as a "flbrighter" three times: Brazil 2001, Brazil 2005, and Peru 2007. I have been a member of the UNL staff since 1989. I served in the Department of Anthropology from 1989 to 1999 before joining the School of Natural Resources in 2000.

My career has had many dimensions. In my early years, I was a field archaeologist in the southwest. My work with Linda Gregonis on Hohokam archaeology can be seen at http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/onlinebks/hohokam/titlhoho.htm. In the past few years, I have returned to those roots, especially Ancestral Pueblo archaeology. Links to recent articles can be found in the publications tab of this site. In the next years, I will explore the cause of the modern diabetes epidemic among southwestern USA tribes from this archaeological perspective. With regard to diabetes, I have collected dietary data for the U.S. Southwest that spans a 10,000-year period. These data, when interpreted in context of new nutritional data that have been collected by other researchers, provide important insight into the relationship of plant use to cultural development and its effect on the evolution of human metabolism.

The main aim of my career between 1985 and 2005 was to find explanations for modern patterns of disease in the archaeological and historic record. I developed a new area of specialization, called archaeoparasitology. This is an approach to understanding the evolution of parasitic disease. It is also the topic of a course I developed for UNL students. Based on a Fulbright teaching-research award to Brazil in 2001, I helped edit a volume of papers on this topic which can be viewed at http://memorias.ioc.fiocruz.br/98sup/98sup.html.

I have also done research in Andean paleoethnobotany, which is the use of plants by ancient peoples. I began this research in 1988 with Chinchorro (an ancient tribe of Chilean Indians) mummy intestinal contents. The research was expanded in 1990, when I participated in NSF-funded excavation and autopsy of more than 100 mummies from the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. My analysis of several hundred samples resulted in new methods for identification of Andean foods, and in the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic reconstruction of diet for the valley. Key results of the study defined the origins of maize agriculture, and subsistence specializations in different ecological zones of the valley. This work was augmented in 1993 when I and my colleagues completed trace elemental analysis of mummies. In 1996, I carried out ethnobotanical studies in Huancayo, Peru, and pioneered a new method of dietary analysis of dental calculus study of a formative skeletal series from Ilo, Peru. In 1997-1998, with funding from the Universidad de Tarapaca, Chile, I and my students traced the impact of the Inca Empire expansion on diet in ancient Chile. The most recent paper on that work can be found at http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008069.

At one point, Sara LeRoy-Toren (Lincoln High School Science Focus Program) and I studied plant anatomy microstructure to identify the diet of Chinchorro people. We found evidence that the oldest cultures in the Atacama Desert subsisted on wetland species of plants. Previously, archaeologists thought that the cultures were completely dependent on marine animals: fish, shellfish and sea lions. The discovery of wetland plants was a surprise, since wetlands in the Atacama Desert had not been recognized. At the end of 2007, Chilean colleagues and I found a remote part of a small Atacama river valley that still had refugia of three of the four wetland types evidenced in the mummies. Cattail, horsetail, and sedges were growing abundantly. All of us realized then that we had overlooked these plant foods, largely because most of the wetlands disappeared under cultivation at the origin of agriculture in the region. Since then, we also looked at the fish remains and fish tapeworm prevalence. Some cemeteries are almost free of infection while others have a 33% prevalence of infection. What we found is that El Nino events alter the variety of fish available to coastal fisherman, even today, and this made and makes people more susceptible to infection today.

Bernardo Arriaza and Karl Reinhard exploring the pollen production of cattails in the Atacama Desert, Chile
Bernardo Arriaza and Karl Reinhard exploring the pollen production of cattails in the Atacama Desert, Chile

Since 2008, when I joined the UNL forensic science degree program, my responsibilities shifted from research to teaching. Since 1989, I served the state of Nebraska as a forensic scientist. Now, I am taking the lessons I learned at crime scenes and in the morgue to the classroom. I am teaching courses in the analysis of pollen and human remains in forensic settings.

In addition, I am spearheading the efforts to develop forensic science degree programs in other countries. As a result of this work, the UNL forensic science degree program has a partner with the Lagos State University College of Medicine's forensic science program in Nigeria. The forensic science degree program is in the final stages of developing a similar cooperative program with the Brazilian National School of Public Health at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro. These joint ventures will provide valuable international experience for UNL forensic science students.

Karl Reinhard and colleaugues

Selected Publications

Camacho, M., Reinhard, K. 2019. Pinworm infection in Salmon Ruins and Aztec Ruins: relation to Pueblo III regional violence. Korean Journal of Parasitology. 57(6): 627-633. Online
Camacho, M., Reinhard, K. 2019. Pinworm research in the Southwest USA: five decades of methodological and theoretical development and the epidemiological approach. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 12(63). Online
M. B., Cordova, B., Perri, A., Wibowo, M. C., Reinhard, K., Tung Jada Ko, W., Kagone, T. S. 2019. CoproID predicts the source of coprolites and paleofeces using microbiome composition and host DNA content. BioRxiv preprint. Online
Pucu de Araujo, E., Reinhard, K., Russ, J. 2019. Gut Microbiome and Diet: What Can Coprolites Tell Us? Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences.
Reinhard, K., Camacho, M. 2019. "Parasitology," in Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, ed. Jane Buikstra (Tempe: Arizona State University),.pp. 479-562.
Reinhard, K., Shin, D. H., Chai, J. Y., Seo, M. 2019. Preface for special issue on archaeoparasitology: a global perspective on ancient parasites and current research projects. Korean Journal of Parasitology. 57(6): 565-566. Online
Tett, A., Rattei, T., Huang, K. D., Reinhard, K., Amuasi, J. 2019. The Prevotella copri complex comprises four distinct clades that are underrepresented in Westernised populations. Cell Host & Microbe. 26(5): 666-679. Online
Camacho, M., Iniguez, A., Reinhard, K. (2018). Taphonomic considerations of pinworm preservation. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports.
Morrow, J., Reinhard, K. (2018). The Paleoepidemiology of Enterobius vermicularis (Nemata: Oxyuridae) among the Loma San Gabriel at La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800CE), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. Comparative Parasitology, 102(4).
Obafunwa, j., Hammerl, E., reinhard, k. (2018). Autologous Bone Flap Resorption Years After Subtemporal Craniotomy. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology.
Obaufunwa, J., Hammerl, E., Reinhard, K. 2018. "The Benefits of a Cooperative Approach: Case Studies from Lancaster County, Nebraska," in Forensic Archaeology - Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. Moran, K., Gold, C. (Moran KS: Springer),. pp. 247-264.
Paseka, R., Reinhard, K., Heitman, C. (2018). New evidence of ancient parasitism among Late Archaic and Ancestral Puebloan residents of Chaco Canyon. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, 18:51–58, 18, 51–58.
Reinhard, K., Bray, A., Leon, H., Kelly, L., Annie, L., D., P.-M. (2018). Pollen Evidence of Medicine from an Embalming Jar Associated with Vittoria della Rovere, Florence, ItalyK. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Reinhard, K., Camacho, M. (2018). Recovering Parasites from Mummies and Coprolites: Establishing an Epidemiological Approach. Parasites and Vectors.
Reinhard, K., Lynch, K. B., Larsen, A., Adams, B., Higley, L., do Amaral, Marina Milanello, Russ, J., Zhou, Y., Lippi, D., Morrow, J., Piombino-Mascali, D. (2018). Pollen evidence of medicine from an embalming jar associated with Vittoria della Rovere, Florence, Italy. JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE-REPORTS, 21, 238-242.
Reinhard, K., Shin, D. H., Slepchenko, S. (2018). Archaeoparasitology. Springer.
Sergey, S., Reinhard, K. (2018). Paleoparasitology and Pathoecology in Russia: Investigations and Perspectives. Paleoparasitology and Pathoecology in Russia: Investigations and Perspectives, 22, 39–44.
Taylor, L., Morrow, J., Peck, L., Elowsky, C., Harvey, M., Owens, L., Eeckhout, P., Reinhard, K. (2018). Pseudoscorpions of the family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionida) recovered from burial sediments at Pachacamac (500-1,500CE), Perú. Journal of Arachnology, 45, 370–375.
Verostick, K., Reinhard, K., Teixeira-Santos, I., Bryant, V. (2018). The Skiles Mummy: Care of a Debilitated Hunter-gatherer Evidenced by Coprolite Studies and Stable Isotopic Analysis of Hair. International Journal of Paleoppathology.
Morrow, J., Reinhard, K. (2017). The Paleoepidemiology of Enterobius vermicularis (Nemata: Oxyuridae) among the Loma San Gabriel at La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800CE), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. Comparative Parasitology, 102(4). Online
Reinhard, K. (2017). Reestablishing rigor in archaeological parasitology. International Journal of Paleopathology, 19, 124-134. Online
Reinhard, K., Milanello do Amaral, M., Wall, N. (2017). Palynological Investigation of Mummified Human Remains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63(1), 244-250. Online
Boyadjian, H. C., Reinhard, K. 2016. Dieta no Sambaqui Jabuticabeira-II (Sc): Consumo de Plantas Revelado por Microvestígios Provenientes de Cálculo Dentário (Diet At Jabuticabeira II (Sc): Plant Foods Revealed By Microremains From Dental Calculus). Cadernos do LEPAARQ, 13. Online
Higley, L., Reinhard, K., Brosius T. R., Carter, D. 2016. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis. J Forensic Sci. 61:1356-1358. Online
Morrow, J., K. Reinhard. 2016. Archaeoentomological and archaeoacarological investigations of embalming jar contents from the San Lorenzo Basilica in Florence, Italy. J Archaeol Sci Reports, 10, 166–171. Online
Morrow, J., Newby, J., Piombino-Mascali, D., Reinhard, K. 2016. Taphonomic considerations for the analysis of parasites in archaeological materials. International Journal of Paleopathology. 13:56–64. Online
Morrow, J.J., Reinhard, K. 2016. Assessing the Archaeoparasitological Potential of Quids As a Source Material for Immunodiagnostic Analyses. Korean J Parasitol. 54:605-616. Online
Reinhard, K., and A. Araujo. 2016. Prehistoric Pathoecology as Represented by Parasites of a Mummy from the Peruaçu Valley, Brazil. Korean J Parasitol 54(5):585-590. Online
Reinhard, K., Araujo, A., Morrow, J.J. 2016. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Enterobius vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in the Prehistoric Americas. Korean J Parasitol. 54:591-603. Online
Reinhard, K., Morrow, J. 2016. Dental archaeoparasitology: Rigorous analysis. BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL. 220:612. Online
Reinhard, K., Morrow, J.J. 2016. Cryptosporidium parvum Among Coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800 CE), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. J. Parasitology. 102:429-35. Online
Hammerl, E. E., Reinhard, K., Baier, M. A. (2015). Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids. PLoS One. 10(7):e0133710. doi: Online
J.J. Morrow, D.A. Baldwin, L. Higley, D. Piombino-Mascali, and K.J. Reinhard. 2015. Curatorial Implications of Ophyra capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) Puparia Recovered from the Body of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages). The Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 36: 81-83. Online
Reinhard, K., Araujo, A. (2015). Palaeoparasitology – Human Parasites in Ancient Material. dvances in Parasitology, 90, 349–387 Online
J.J. Morrow, A.S. Larsen, D. Piombino-Mascali, R. Jankauskas, J. Kozakaite, A. Araujo, and K.J. Reinhard. 2014. Taphonomic considerations of a whipworm infection in a mummy from the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit, Vilnius, Lithuania. The International Journal of Paleopathology. 7: 83-87. Online
Reinhard, K. J., Araujo, A. (2014). Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities and the Pathoecology of Chagas Disease in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands. Journal of Archaeological Science. 53, 227–234. Online
S.E. Racz, E. Pucu de Araujo, E. Jensen, C. Mostek, J.J. Morrow, M.L. Van Hove, R. Bianucci, D. Willems, F. Heller, A. Araujo, and K.J. Reinhard. 2014. Parasitology in an archaeological context: Analysis of medieval burials in Nivelles, Belgium. The Journal of Archaeological Science. 53: 304-315. Online
Seo, M., Araujo, A., Reinhard, K., Chai, Y. J., Shin, D. H. (2014). Paleoparasitological Studies on Mummies of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 52, 1-8. Online
Williams, S., Hubbard, S., Chaves, S., Reinhard, K. (2014). Establishing Tobacco Origin from Pollen Identification: An Approach to Resolving the Debate. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59: 1642-1649. Online
Arriaza, B., Reinhard, K., Arriaza, B. (2013). On head lice and social intercourse in early Andean coastal populations. International Journal of Paleopathology, 3, 257–268. Online
Celeste, G., Reinhard, K., Brian, B., J, C. (2013). Tracking Shifts in Coca Use in the Moche Valley: Analysis of Oral Health Indicators and Dental Calculus Microfossils. Ńawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology 33:193-214.,
Cleeland,LM, Mason R, Tito RY, Reinhard K, Lewis CM (2013) Clarifying Prehistoric Parasitism from a Complementary Morphological and Molecular Approach. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:3060-3066. Online
Haas, J., Creamer, W., Huaman, L., Goldstein, D., Reinhard, K., Vergel, C., Ruiz A (2013) Evidence for Maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000-1800 CE) in the Norte Chico region of Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(13):4945-4949. Online
J.J. Morrow, D. Piombino-Mascali, D. Lippi, and K.J. Reinhard. 2013. Archaeoparasitological analysis of viscera from the Medici Family (Saint Lorenzo Basilica, Florence, Italy). Medicea. (In Press).
Piombino-Mascali D, Zink AR, Reinhard KJ, Lein M, Panzer S, Aufderheide AC, Rachid R, De Souza W, Araujo A, Chaves SAM, Teixeira-Santos I, Dutra J, (2013) Dietary Analysis of Piraino 1, Sicily, Italy: the Role of Archaeopalynology in Forensic Science. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 1935-1945. Online
Reinhard K, Ferreira LF, Bouchet F, Sianto L, Dutra JMF, Iniguez A., Leles D, Le Bailly M, Fugassa M, Pucu E, Araujo A (2013). Food, parasites, and epidemiological transitions: a broad perspective. International Journal of Paleopathology. 3: 150-157. Online
Reinhard, K. (2013). Applying forensic anthropological data in homicide investigation to the depravity standard. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 20, 27–39. Online
Searcey N, Reinhard KJ, Gardner SL, Egarter-Vigl E, Maixner F, Piombino-Mascali D, Zink A, Van Der Sanden W, Bianucci R (2013) Parasitism of the Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis evidenced in a Roman period bog mummy. International Journal of Paleopathology. 478. Online
Searcey, N., Reinhard, K., Gardner, S. L., Egarter-Vigl, E., Maixner, F., Piombino-Mascali, D., Zink, A., Van Der Sanden, W., Bianucci, R. (2013). Parasitism of the Zweeloo Woman Bog Body. International Journal of Paleopathology, 3, 224–228.
Arriaza, B., Standen, V., Núńez, H., Reinhard, K. (2012). Study of archaeological nits/eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis by scanning electron microscopy. Micron. Online
Jimenez FA, Gardner SL, Araujo A, Fugassa M, Brooks RH, Racz E, Reinhard KJ (2012) Zoonotic and Human Parasites of Inhabitants of Cueva de Los Muertos Chiquitos, Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 98:304-309. Online
Leles D, Gardner S, Reinhard K, Iniguez A, Araujo A (2012) Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species? Parasites & Vectors 5:42.
Reinhard KJ, Johnson KL, LeRoy-Toren S, Wieseman K, Teixeira-Santos I, Vieira M (2012) Understanding the Pathoecological Relationship between Ancient Diet and Modern Diabetes through Coprolite Analysis: A Case Example from Antelope Cave, Mojave County, Arizona. Current Anthropology 53: 506-512. Online
Reinhard, K., Texeira-Santos, I. (2012). Eating lizards: a millenary habit evidenced by Paleoparasitology. BioMed Central Research Notes. Online
Tito, R. Y., Kights, D., Mecal, J., Obregon-Tito, A. J., Cleeland, L., Fares, N., Roe, B., Reinhard, K., Sobolik, K., Aufderheide, A., Foster, M., Spicer, P., Knight, R., Lewis, C. M. (2012). Insights from Characterizing Extinct Human Gut Microbiomes. PLoS ONE. Online
Eggers S, Parks M, Grupe G, Reinhard KJ (2011) Paleoamerican Diet, Migration and Morphology in Brazil: Archaeological Complexity of the Earliest Americans. PLoS ONE 6(9): e23962. Online
Fugassa MH, Reinhard KJ, Johnson KL, Vieira M, Araujo A (2011) Parasitism of prehistoric humans and companion animals from Antelope Cave Mojave County, Arizona. Journal of Parasitology 97: 862-867. Online
Kumm K, Reinhard KJ, Araujo A, Piombino-Mascali D (2011) The Parasitology of the Piraino 1 Mummy, Sicily, Italy. Anthropologie: International Journal of the Science of Man 48:177-184.
Arriaza BT, Reinhard KJ, Araujo AG, Orellana NC, Standen VG (2010) Possible Influence of ENSO Phenomenon on the Pathoecology of Diphyllobothriasis and Anisakiasis in ancient Chinchorro Populations. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 105: 66-72. Online
Kucera M, Panny D, Boyadjian CH, Reinhard K, Eggers S (2010) Efficient But Destructive: A Test Of The Dental Wash Technique Using Secondary Electron Microscopy. Journal of Archaeological Science (epub 26 Sept, 2010) Online
Leles D, Reinhard KJ, Fugassa M, Ferreira LF, Iniguez AM, Araujo A (2010) A parasitological paradox: Why is ascarid infection so rare in the prehistoric Americas? Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1510-1520. Online
Wesolowski V, de Souza SMM, Reinhard KJ, Ceccantini G (2010) Evaluating Microfossil Content of Dental Calculus from Brazilian Sambaquis. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1326-1338. Online
Araujo A, Jansen AM, Reinhard K, Ferreira LF (2009) Paleoparasitology of Chagas disease: A review. Mem Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 104: 9-16. Online
Sianto L, Chame M, Silva CSP, Goncalves MLC, Reinhard K, Fugassa M, Araujo A (2009) Animal Helminths in Human Archaeological Remains: A Review Of Zoonoses in the Past. Revista do Instituto de Medina Tropical de Sao Paulo 51:119-130. Online
Vinton SD, Perry L, Reinhard KJ, Santoro CM, Teixeira-Santos I (2009) Impact of Empire Expansion on Household Diet: the Inka in Northern Chile's Atacama Desert. PLoS ONE 4: e8069. Online
Araujo A, Reinhard KJ, Ferreira LF, Gardner SL (2008) Parasites: probes for evidence of prehistoric human migrations. Trends in Parasitology 24: 112-115. Online
Eggers S, Petronilho CC, Brandt K, Jerico-Daminello C, Filippini J, Reinhard KJ (2008) How does a riverine setting affect the lifestyle of shellmound builders in Brazil? HOMO-Journal of Comparative Human Biology. Online
Fugassa M, Sardella N, Taglioretti V, Reinhard K, Araujo A (2008) Eimeriid Oocysts From Archaeological Samples in Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Parasitology 94:1418-1420. Online
Johnson KL, Reinhard KJ, Sianto L, Araujo A, Gardner SL, Janovy Jr. J (2008) A tick from a prehistoric Arizona coprolite. Journal of Parasitology 94: 296-298. Online
Meier DK, Reinhard KJ, Carter DO, Brooks DW (2008) Simulations with elaborated worked example modeling: beneficial effects on schema acquisition. Journal of Science Education and Technology 17:262-273. Online
Reinhard KJ (2008) Parasite Pathoecology of Chacoan Great Houses: The Healthiest and Wormiest Ancestral Puebloans. Northern Prodigies Salmon, Aztec, and the Ascendancy of the Middle San Juan Region after AD 1100. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 86-95. Online
Reinhard KJ, Araujo A, Sianto L, Costello JG, Swope K. (2008) Chinese liver flukes in latrine sediments from Wong Nim's property, San Bernardino, California: Archaeoparasitology of the Caltrans District Headquarters. Journal of Parasitology 94:300-303. Online
Reinhard KJ, Bryant VM (2008) Pathoecology and the Future of Coprolite Studies. Reanalysis and Reinterpretation in Southwestern Bioarchaeology. Arizona State University Press: Tempe, 199-216. Online
Reinhard KJ, Chaves SAM, Iniguez AM (2008) Evaluating chloroplast DNA in prehistoric Texas coprolites: medicinal, dietary, or ambient ancient DNA? Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 1748-1755. Online
Tito RY, Macmil S, Wiley G, Najar F, Cleeland L, Qu C, Wang P, Romagne F, Leonard S, Ruiz AJ, Reinhard K, Roe BA, Lewis CM Jr. (2008) Phylotyping and functional analysis of two ancient human microbiomes. PLoS ONE 3(11):e3703. Epub 2008 Nov 11. Online
Iniguez, A.M., Araujo A., Vicente, A.C.P., Ferreira, L.F., Reinhard, K.J. 2003. Enterobius vermicularis: Specific Detection by Amplification of an Internal Region of 5S Ribosomal RNA Intergenic Spacer and Trans-splicing Leader RNA Analysis. Experimental Parasitology 102(3-4):218-22.
Rick, F., Rocha, G.C., Dittmar, K., Coimbra, Jr. C.E.A., Reinhard, K., Bouchet, F., Ferreira, L.F., and Araujo, A. 2003. Crab louse infestation in pre-Columbian America. Journal of Parasitology. 88:1266-1277. Online
Carvalho Goncalves, M.J., Araujo, A., Duarte, R., Pereira da Silva, J., Reinhard, K., Bouchet, F., Ferreira, L.F. 2002. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in coprolites using a commercially available enzyme innumoassay. The Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 96(6):640-643.
Reinhard, K.J., Araujo, A., Ferreira, L.F., Coimbra, C. 2001. American hookworm antiquity. Medical Anthropology. 20:96-101. Online
Reinhard, K.J., de Souza, S.M.F., Rodrigues, C.D., Kimmerle, E., Dorsey-Vinton, S. 2001. Microfossils in Dental Calculus: A New Perspective on Diet and Dental Disease. Human Remains: Conservation, Retrieval, and Analysis. 113-118.
Hugot, J.P., Reinhard, K.J., Gardner, S.L., and Morand, S. 1999. Human enterobiasis in evolution: origin, specificity and transmission. Parasite. 6:201-208. Online
Myers, J., Okoye, I., Kimmerle, E., and Reinhard, K.J. 1999. Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging in post-mortem examinations: elucidation and identification of cranial and facial fractures in victims of homicide utilizing 3-D computerized imaging reconstruction techniques. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 113:33-37.
Okoye, M., Kimmerle, E., and Reinhard, K.J. 1999. An analysis and report of custodial deaths in Nebraska, USA. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine. 6:77-84 .
Danielson, D.R., and K.J. Reinhard 1998. Human dental microwear caused by calcium oxalate phytoliths in prehistoric diet of the lower Pecos region, Texas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 107:297-304. Online
Camacho, M., Reinhard, K. 2019. Confusing a pollen grain with a parasite egg: an appraisal of “Paleoparasitological evidence of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection in a female adolescent residing in ancient Tehran”. Korean Journal of Parasitology. 57(6): 621-625. Online
Reinhard, K., Camacho, M. (in press). Parasitology. Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains (pp. 35). Cambridge MA: Elsevier Inc. (S&T Books and Cell Press).


Selected Presentations

AVALIAÇÃO DE METODOLOGIAS FORENSES PARA COLETA DE PÓLEN Assessment of forensic methods for pollen collection
  • Presentation Type: Poster Presentation
  • Date: 5/16/2013
  • Abstract: The main goal in crime investigation is finding the perpetrator. DNA, fingerprints, hair, and footprints represent strong evidence for conviction. In the absence of such evidence, or to augment a case, we can also recover pollen grains from clothing and shoes of a suspect to link him/her to a crime scene or victim. In addition, pollen can provide data about environment and seasonality. Debates always circle around the methods of recovery. It is essential to avoid destructive methods, especially when a unique piece of evidence will be analyzed for different purposes over a period of time. However, how reliable are non-destructive methods such as cloth vacuuming and sonication? To answer this question, cotton cloth sections were saturated with equal amounts of three different pollen morphological types. These were tricolporate - high-spine (Asteraceae – Helianthus annuus), monoporate – psilate (Poaceae – Zea mays) and bisaccate (Pinaceae - Pinus ponderosa). Clothing fragments were submitted to four different treatments: 1. direct acetolysis of cloth; 2. vacuum-cleaning with cotton filters and then acetolysis; 3. cloth fragment directly treated with acetolysis after vacuuming; 4. cloth sonicated and residue acetolated. Our results revealed tendencies and biases in pollen recovery that should be considered when dealing with forensic evidence.
  • Full Citation: XIV SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE PALEOBOTÂNICA E PALINOLOGIA Marina Milanello do AMARAL1, Karl REINHARD2 1Instituto de CriminalĂ­stica – SPTC, SĂŁo Paulo, Brasil (marina_milanello@yahoo.com.br) 2University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Nebraska, Estados Unidos http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/xivsbpp/programacao_XIVSBPP.pdf
Case Study: Determining Location of Homicide through Palynology
  • Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
  • Date: 5/16/2013
  • Abstract: Palynological studies were conducted in a 2003 homicide case in Nebraska, U.S.A. The pollen analysis tested multiple police working hypotheses regarding possible origin and transportation of the corpse. The hypotheses related to the origin of the corpse which could have been in Nebraska, New Mexico, or California. Pollen was processed from three different samples which included hair, intestinal tissue, and the underlying carpet on which the deceased was found. The microscopic analysis of the palynomorphs recovered dietary pollen grains and an environmental pollen spectrum with the Nebraska crime scene. Further studies were planned to collect and identify the pollen spectrum at the crime scene in order to strengthen the preliminary results. However, our preliminary results were sufficient for the authorities. A plea bargain brought closure to the case and terminated further studies at that time. Recently, the case samples were re-processed and re-analyzed, to further research objectives related to statistical validation from the field Archaeopalynology which is long established in quantitative methods and results. Preliminary results indicate that 200 counts of pollen are possible, that pollen concentration (along with specific methods and conditions), adds to the scientific validity of forensic palynological cases. By applying these set standards to Forensic Palynology, we will assist in the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council’s recommendations and guidelines in creating set standards in forensic science.
  • Full Citation: XIV SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE PALEOBOTÂNICA E PALINOLOGIA Nicole WALL1, Karl REINHARD 1 & Marina AMARAL2 1University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A. (nwall2@unl.edu) 2 Instituto de CriminalĂ­stica SPTC - SĂŁo Paulo, SĂŁo Paulo, Brasil http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/xivsbpp/programacao_XIVSBPP.pdf
Detecting Contraband Tobacco Products through Pollen Analysis: Examining the Pollen Profile for Brazilian Tobacco
  • Presentation Type: Poster Presentation
  • Date: 5/16/2013
  • Abstract: Previous work by Donaldson and Stephens establishes methods for the analysis of pollen from tobacco to determine geographic origin of production. These researchers postulated that it was possible to identify signature pollen types, specific to geographic regions within a subcontinent. Subsequent research by Bryant and his colleagues threw into doubt the proposal that pollen analysis can be use to determine geographic origin of tobacco samples. We analyzed a tobacco sample from Brazil in an effort to identify signature taxa from the state of Minas Gerais to resolve this debate. We were successful in recovering pollen types that are specific to this Brazilian region and our analysis supports Donaldson and Stephens’s proposal. We reviewed the data presented by Bryant and his colleagues and found that they too were able to identify a regional signature. Therefore, pollen analysis can show the geographic origin of tobacco.
  • Full Citation: XIV SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE PALEOBOTÂNICA E PALINOLOGIA Shane Williams 1; Karl Reinhard 2; Sergio A. de M. Chaves 3 1, University of California Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program: 2 Forensic Science Program, University of Nebraska-Lincoln: 3, Escola Nacional de SaĂșde PĂșblica, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/xivsbpp/programacao_XIVSBPP.pdf
PÓLEN EM CACHIMBOS DE MACONHA – Pollen grains from marijuana pipes\
  • Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
  • Date: 5/15/2013
  • Abstract: Among USA marijuana users, pipes are commonly used for smoking. Due to the constant airflow through the pipes during smoking, and the resin deposits within the pipe, pollen is concentrated inside of pipes. Interestingly, the heat of the pipe does not incinerate pollen. Therefore, pipes concentrate anemophilous pollen grains from the air where the pipe is smoked, as well as pollen grains trapped in marijuana material. Therefore, the development of sampling methods for pollen grains recovered from pipes can be useful in providing environmental information about marijuana use spots and, in some cases, about drug origin. In this study, two marijuana pipes were analyzed. The pollen spectrum was dominated by wetland types and a diversity of arboreal types. This association of plants can be found along the streams and ponds in Lincoln’s parks. These are the areas where teenagers commonly smoke marijuana. It is very likely that the pipes were used at these locations. Samples of unsmoked marijuana from the same suspects who used the pipes, showed completely different pollen spectra. One spectrum presented here is typical of prairie areas. Therefore, we conclude that the pollen in the pipes represents previous purchases of marijuana unrelated to the marijuana residue in the pipes. Most importantly, the pollen in the pipes contains pollen specific to Lincoln’s riparian parks.
  • Full Citation: XIV SimpĂłsio Brasileiro de PaleobotĂąnica e Palinologia PÓLEN EM CACHIMBOS DE MACONHA – Pollen grains from marijuana pipes Marina Milanello do AMARAL1, Karl REINHARD2 & Tif GARV2 1Instituto de CriminalĂ­stica – SPTC, SĂŁo Paulo, Brasil (marina_milanello@yahoo.com.br) 2University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Nebraska, Estados Unidos
PÓLEN EM ORGÃOS INTERNOS MUMIFICADOS DA ITÁLIA - Pollen From Mummified Human Internal Organs From Italy
  • Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
  • Date: 5/15/2013
  • Abstract: Pollen data was collected from three jars of intestinal remains from the Medici family of Florence, Italy dating to the Renaissance. In the most pollen-rich sample, a large concentration of Myrtaceae pollen was observed. In addition, the Myrtaceae grains were commonly found in clusters. This means that the pollen could have come from dietary practices due to its high concentration and clustering. Cloves is the most likely source of this pollen which exceeded 20,000 grains per gram of sample. However, other Myrtaceae species were used in the embalming process as either a preservative, a stuffing, or an aromatic compound to offset decomposition smell. In contrast, a second sample had a lower concentration with a great diversity of wind pollinated taxa, the most common being Olea. This sample represents the natural pollen rain of Spring in Florence. A third sample was dominated by spring pollinated types, but also exhibited a diverse spectrum of economic types including Trifolium, Triticum, Myrtaceae, Fagopyrum, and Brassica-type. These data show that the analysis of embalming jars containing internal organs has the potential of revealing aspects of diet, medicine and season of death.
  • Full Citation: XIV SimpĂłsio Brasileiro de PaleobotĂąnica e Palinologia Nicole B. GULSETH1, Annie LARSEN1, Kelsey B. LYNCH1, Karl REINHARD1, Marina AMARAL2, Dario PIOMBINO-MASCALI3 1University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA (kreinhard1@mac.com) 2 Instituto de CriminalĂ­stica SPTC - SĂŁo Paulo, SĂŁo Paulo, Brasil 3Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, EURAC, Bolzano, Italy http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/xivsbpp/programacao_XIVSBPP.pdf
La Mita y AnĂĄlisisde Dieta Durante el Horizonte Inca en los Valles de Arica
  • Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
  • Date: 6/21/2012
  • Abstract: When the Inka Empire incorporated indigenous farmers of northern Chile’s Atacama Desert, the farmers’ diet was altered by the Inka corvĂ©e tax system of maize production. The corvĂ©e tax imposed on the farming societies was specifically on chicha, a fermented drink made of maize. In return, the Inka system of complementarity introduced previously rare foods from the Andean highlands into local economies. The analysis of starch in coprolites shows that the loss in chicha as a dietary mainstay was not offset completely by the introduction of high altitude produce. Instead, the evidence shows that the farming communities increased their reliance on manioc. Combined with previously published infection information for the same populations under Inka rule, the data suggest that there may have been a dual health impact from disruption of nutrition and introduction of crowd disease.
  • Full Citation: Reinhard KJ (2012) La Mita y AnĂĄlisisde Dieta Durante el Horizonte Inca en los Valles de Arica. Seminar presented in Spanish at the Instituto de Alta InvestigaciĂłn, Universidad de TarapacĂĄ, Arica, Chile.
What Lice Teach Us about Ancient Cultures: the Late Intermediate Period of the Lower Moquegua Valley, Peru
  • Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
  • Date: 6/15/2012
  • Abstract: An analysis of louse prevalence on mummies and quantification of the numbers of eggs per infested mummy was completed for 146 mummies from the lower Moquegua Valley of southern Peru, focusing on Chiribaya sites. Individual cases show interesting stories related to medical care. One individual shows a severe facial deformity. This person was extremely infested with lice. This suggests that certain people fell outside of normal care by the population and were overwhelmed by their diseases. Another individual shows that adhesive substances were applied to the hair which covered and suffocated the lice. Therefore, it appears that treatments for lice were available, but rarely used. On a population level, the epidemiology of infection was the opposite of modern people. Children were less at risk for infestation. Adult men were most infested. Generally, 10% of the population carried 70% of the lice. This pattern was not true for a group of immigrants who were of the lowest social status. This group had very high infestations. Therefore, individual health status, sex, age and social status were the cultural factors that defined the paleoepidemiology of louse infestation.
  • Full Citation: Reinhard KJ (2012) What Lice Teach Us about Ancient Cultures: the Late Intermediate Period of the Lower Moquegua Valley, Peru. Seminar presented in Spanish at the Instituto de Alta InvestigaciĂłn, Universidad de TarapacĂĄ, Arica, Chile.
Complementary Morphological and Molecular Methodology in the study of Prehistoric Parasitism
  • Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
  • Date: 8/11/2011
  • Full Citation: Cleeland L, M Reichard, R Tito, C Lewis, K Reinhard, 2011 Complementary Morphological and Molecular Methodology in the study of Prehistoric Parasitism (Lauren Cleeland, lead author), 4th Meeting of the Paleopathology Association in South America, Lima, Peru.
Forensic Palynological Investigation of Marijuana Use: From Paraphernalia to Corpses
  • Presentation Type: Team Presentation
  • Date: 8/10/2011
  • Full Citation: 08/10/2011 Forensic Palynological Investigation of Marijuana Use: From Paraphernalia to Corpses, 2011 Trace Evidence Symposium: Science, Significance and Impact.
Forensic Palynological Analysis Of Intestinal Contents of a Korean Mummy
  • Presentation Type: Team Presentation
  • Date: 6/12/2011
  • Full Citation: Paulette Arguelles, lead author, Forensic Palynological Analysis Of Intestinal Contents of a Korean Mummy, AAAS/Mummy Congress.

Educational Background

  • BA - University of Arizona (1977)
  • MS - University of Northern Arizona (1985)
  • PhD - Texas A&M University (1988)


  • 2016 – Eve Cockburn Mentorship Award awarded by Paleopathology Association 
  • 2012 – Ciencia sem Fronteiras awarded by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de NĂ­vel Superior 
  • 2012 – The PrĂȘmio Jabuti literary award in Brazil awarded by CĂąmara Brasileira do Livro  
  • 2009 – Phi Beta Delta Honor Society for International Scholars awarded by UNL International Studies 
  • 2007 – Research, teaching and lab development in Perú awarded by FULBRIGHT/NFS 
  • 2005 – Archaeobotany/palynology classes, Brazil awarded by FULBRIGHT/CNP 
  • 2001 – Research and teaching in Brazil (2001-2002) awarded by FULBRIGHT/CAPES 

SNR Program Area(s)

  • Applied Ecology

Affiliations (index)

Professional Organizations

Notable Websites

Areas of Interest

  • Relation of Ancient Diet to Modern Diabetes
  • Origin and Pathoecology of Human Parasites
  • Forensic Science
  • International Education
  • Archaeoparasitology
  • Palynology
  • Paleoethnobotany
  • Ecology
  • Humans and the Enivornment
  • Paleoclimate
  • Paleoenvironments
  • Human Geography
  • Human Dimensions of Natural Resources

Currently this page only displays grants that were awarded on 1/1/2009 to the present. If a grant was awarded prior to 1/1/2009 and is still active, it will not be displayed on this page.

There no Grants found for this selection.

Undergraduate Majors Bachelor of Science in
  • Environmental Studies
Graduate Program(s)

Master of Science in Natural Resource Sciences

including specializations in
  • Applied Ecology

Doctor of Philosophy in Natural Resource Sciences

including specializations in
  • Applied Ecology

Courses Taught
Course Number Course Title Fall Even Years Fall Odd Years Spring Even Years Spring Odd Years Summer Session Cross Listing
NRES 446 Pollen Analysis for Behavioral, Biological, and Forensic Science X X FORS/NRES 446/846
NRES 447 Achaeoparasitology: The Archaelogy of Disease X X NRES 447/847
NRES 846 Pollen Analysis for Behavioral, Biological, and Forensic Science X X FORS/NRES 446/846
NRES 847 Achaeoparasitology: The Archaelogy of Disease X NRES 447/847
NRES 892 Study Tours in Natural Resource Management: Sicily, Italy None

SNR Speakers Bureau

What I can speak about:

1) Origin of Agriculture in the Andes, 2) Archaeological Evidence of Natural Resources in Ancient Diet, 3) Ancient Origins of Parasites of Humans

When I am most available to speak:

week nights

What target audiences I am most comfortable speaking to:

  • Middle/High School
  • College
  • OLLI - lifelong learning for adults 50 years and older)
  • General Public