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Lincoln Weather and Climate

Monthly Global Temperature Anomalies

The maps below are a product of a merged land surface and sea surface temperature anomaly analysis. Temperature anomalies with respect to the 1971-2000 mean for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. Note that BLUE is BELOW normal and RED is ABOVE normal. The maps were "dot" maps through June 2012. The size of the dot is proportional to the magnitude of the anomaly. Temperature anomalies are noted in degrees Centigrade. The maps were converted to a color shading format in July 2012. The intensity of the color shows the magnitude of the anomaly. The maps and data analysis are from the National Climatic Data Center. This page was produced within the Applied Climate Science Group of the School of Natural Resources, UNL.

The global data set has 136 years of data (1880-2015). Scroll down to see all of the months for Year 2015.

NOTE: Short summaries for each month are found below the last map.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MONTHLY SUMMARIES:

Global Highlights December 2015

  • The December 2015 globally-averaged temperature across land and ocean surfaces was 1.11°C (2.00°F) above the 20th century average of 12.2°C (54.0°F), the highest for any month since records began in 1880, surpassing the previous all-time record set two months ago in October by 0.12°C (0.21°F). This is the first time the global monthly departure from average has surpassed 1°C and is the largest margin by which an all-time monthly temperature record has been broken. Incredibly, the December 2015 temperature also surpasses the December record temperature set last year by 0.29°C (0.52°F), the largest margin by which a monthly temperature record has been broken for its respective month. And comparing to December 1997, the last December when a comparatively strong El Niño was in place, the December 2015 global temperature was 0.49°C (0.88°F) higher. Finally, this December also marks the eighth consecutive month (since April 2015) with a global monthly temperature breaking the record for its respective month.

    Separately, the global land surface temperature was 1.89°C (3.40°F) above average, the highest on record for December, surpassing the previous record set in 2006 by 0.48°C (0.86°F). The Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere each had their record highest December land temperatures in the 136-year period of record. Across the globe, record warm temperatures were observed over every continent, including a large swath of eastern North America, southern Mexico through northern South America, western and central Europe, most of southern Africa, parts of central and southeastern Asia, and a large section of southeastern Australia. The highest temperature anomalies (more than 5°C / 9°F above the 1981–2010 average) were observed across much of northern Eurasia and eastern North America, driving much the global record warmth. It was cooler than average in eastern Russia, regions of central and northern Africa, and part of central South America, according to the December Land & Ocean Temperatures Departure from Average and Percentiles maps above. No land areas were record cold in December

 

Global Highlights November 2015

  • The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for November 2015 was the highest for November in the 136-year period of record, at 0.97°C (1.75°F) above the 20th century average of 12.9°C (55.2°F), breaking the previous record of 2013 by 0.15°C (0.27°F). This marks the seventh consecutive month that a monthly global temperature record has been broken. The temperature departure from average for November is also the second highest among all months in the 136-year period of record. The highest departure of 0.99°C (1.79°F) occurred last month.

    The average global temperature across land surfaces was 1.31°C (2.36°F) above the 20th century average of 5.9°C (42.6°F), the fifth highest November temperature on record. Most of Earth's land surfaces were warmer than average or much warmer than average, according to the Land & Ocean Temperature Percentiles map above, with record warmth notable across most of equatorial and northeastern South America and parts of southeastern Asia. Parts of the western United States, southern Greenland, portions of northern Asia, and parts of southern South America were near to cooler than average. No regions were record cold in November.

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Global Highlights October 2015

  • The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for October 2015 was the highest for October in the 136-year period of record, at 0.98°C (1.76°F) above the 20th century average of 14.0°C (57.1°F). This marked the sixth consecutive month a monthly global temperature record has been broken and was also the greatest departure from average for any month in the 1630 months of recordkeeping, surpassing the previous record high departure set just last month by 0.13°F (0.07°C). The October temperature is currently increasing at an average rate of 0.06°C (0.11°F) per decade.

    Separately, the October average temperature across global land surfaces was 1.33°C (2.39°F) above the 20th century average, the highest for October on record. This surpasses the previous record set in October 2011 by 0.17°C (0.31°F). This margin is larger than the uncertainty associated with the dataset. Large regions of Earth's land surfaces were much warmer than average, according to the Land & Ocean Temperature Percentiles map above. Record warmth was observed across the entire southern half of Australia, part of southern and southeastern Asia, much of central and southern Africa, most of Central America and northern South America, and parts of western North America. Regionally, Oceania and the African continent were both record warm. Argentina, part of northeastern Canada, scattered regions of western and central Russia, and central Japan were cooler or much cooler than average.

Global Highlights September 2015

  • The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for September 2014 was the highest on record for September, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.0°C (59.0°F).
  • The global land surface temperature was 0.89°C (1.60°F) above the 20th century average of 12.0°C (53.6°F), the sixth highest for September on record. For the ocean, the September global sea surface temperature was 0.66°C (1.19°F) above the 20th century average of 16.2°C (61.1°F), the highest on record for September and also the highest on record for any month.
  • The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the January–September period (year-to-date) was 0.68°C (1.22°F) above the 20th century average of 14.1°C (57.5°F), tying with 1998 as the warmest such period on record.

 

Global Highlights August 2015

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for August 2015 was 0.88°C (1.58°F) above the 20th century average of 15.6°C (60.1°F) and the highest August in the 136-year record. This value surpassed the previous record set in 2014 by 0.09°C (0.16°F). Most of the world's surface was substantially warmer than average and, in some locations, record warm during August 2015, contributing to the monthly global record warmth. This was the sixth month in 2015 that has broken its monthly temperature record (February, March, May, June, July, and August). August 2015 tied with January 2007 as the third warmest monthly departure from average for any of the 1628 months since records began in January 1880, behind February 2015 and March 2015 (+0.89°C / +1.60°F). Five of the ten largest monthly temperature departures from average occurred in 2015.

The average global land surface temperature for August 2015 was 1.14°C (2.05°F) above the 20th century average—the highest August value in the 1880–2015 record, exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by +0.13°C (+0.23°F). According to the Land and Ocean Temperature Percentiles map (shown above), much-warmer-than-average conditions was present across much of the western contiguous U.S., Mexico, South America, Africa, Europe, and parts of eastern Asia. According to the Land & Ocean Temperature Percentiles map, record warmth was observed across South America and parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. South America, Europe, and Africa experienced their warmest August average temperature since 1910. Near- to much-cooler-than-average conditions were present across Alaska, western Canada, the central contiguous U.S., and western and southeastern Asia.

Global Highlights July 2015

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for July 2015 was the highest for July in the 136-year period of record, at 0.81°C (1.46°F) above the 20th century average of 15.8°C (60.4°F), surpassing the previous record set in 1998 by 0.08°C (0.14°F). As July is climatologically the warmest month of the year globally, this monthly global temperature of 16.61°C (61.86°F) was also the highest among all 1627 months in the record that began in January 1880. The July temperature is currently increasing at an average rate of 0.65°C (1.17°F) per century.

Separately, the July average temperature across global land surfaces was 0.96°C (1.73°F) above the 20th century average, the sixth warmest for July on record. Large regions of Earth's land surfaces were much warmer than average, according to the Land & Ocean Temperature Percentiles map above. The average temperature for Africa was the second highest for July on record, behind only 2002, with regional record warmth across much of eastern Africa into central areas of the continent. Record warmth was also observed across much of northern South America, parts of southern Europe and central Asia, and the far western United States. A large swath stretching from eastern Scandinavia into western Siberia was cooler than average, with part of western Russia much cooler than average. Cooler than average temperatures were also observed across parts of eastern and southern Asia and scattered areas in central and northern North America.

 

Global Highlights June 2015

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for June 2015 was the highest for June in the 136-year period of record, at 0.88°C (1.58°F) above the 20th century average of 15.5°C (59.9°F), surpassing the previous record set just one year ago by 0.12°C (0.22°F). This was also the fourth highest monthly departure from average for any month on record. The two highest monthly departures from average occurred earlier this year in February and March, both at 0.90°C (1.62°F) above the 20th century average for their respective months, while January 2007 had the third highest, at 0.89°C (1.60°F) above its monthly average.

June 2015 also marks the fourth month this year that has broken its monthly temperature record, along with February, March, and May. The other months of 2015 were not far behind: January was second warmest for its respective month and April was third warmest. These six warm months combined with the previous six months (four of which were also record warm) to make the period July 2014–June 2015 the warmest 12-month period in the 136-year period of record, surpassing the previous record set just last month (June 2014–May 2015). As shown in the table below, the 10 warmest 12-month periods have all been marked in the past 10 months.

Global Highlights May 2015

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for May 2015 was the highest for May in the 136-year period of record, at 0.87°C (1.57°F) above the 20th century average of 14.8°C (58.6°F), surpassing the previous record set just one year ago by 0.08°C (0.14°F). This ties with February 1998 as the fourth highest monthly departure from average for any month on record. The two highest monthly departures from average occurred earlier this year in February and March, both at 0.89°C (1.60°F) above the 20th century average for their respective months.

The average global temperature across land surfaces was 1.28°C (2.30°F) above the 20th century average of 11.1°C (52.0°F), tying with 2012 as the highest May temperature on record. Most of Earth's land surfaces were warmer than average or much warmer than average, according to the Land & Ocean Temperature Percentiles map above, with record warmth across most of Alaska, parts of tropical South America, much of southern Africa and The Middle East, and parts of northwestern Siberia. Only part of the central United States, far west central Australia, and part of Far East Russia observed temperatures characterized as "cooler than average" for May.

Global Highlights April 2015

The average temperature across global land and ocean surface temperatures combined for April 2015 was 0.74°C (1.33°F) higher than the 20th century average. This was the fourth highest for April in the 136-year period of record, but also marks the lowest monthly departure from average since November 2014.

Examining the data beyond the traditional calendar year, the latest 12-month period (May 2014–April 2015) ties with the record set last month (April 2014–March 2015) as the warmest 12-month period among all months in the 136-year period of record, as shown in the table below. In fact, this record was set several times over the past year, and nine of the ten warmest 12-month periods have occurred within the past two years (September 1997–August 1998 ties as eighth warmest). Nine of these ten 12-month periods also comprise months in two overlapping years. Only the full calendar year of 2014 is among the ten warmest 12-month periods (ties for sixth warmest).

 

Global Highlights March 2015

The average temperature across global land and ocean surface temperatures combined for March 2015 was 0.85°C (1.53°F) higher than the 20th century average of 12.7°C (54.9°F). This marks the highest March temperature in the 136-year period of record, surpassing the previous record of 2010 by 0.05°C (0.09°F). The Northern Hemisphere had its second highest March temperature on record, behind only 2008, while the Southern hemisphere tied with 2002 for third highest.

The March 2015 global temperature was the third highest monthly departure from average on record for any month, just 0.01°C (0.02°F) lower than the monthly anomalies for February 1998 and January 2007. This also replaces February 2015 (+0.84°C / +1.51°F) as the third highest departure from average among all months, moving that month to fourth highest. Seven of the past eleven months (May, June, August, September, October, and December 2014, along with March 2015) have tied or set new record high monthly temperatures.

The average March temperature over land surfaces across the globe tied with 1990 as the second highest for March on record, at 1.59°C (2.86°F) above the 20th century average. The warmth was spread fairly evenly across the hemispheres, as the Northern and Southern Hemisphere each observed their third highest March land surface temperatures on record. Most land areas were warmer to much warmer than average, as shown by the Temperature Percentiles map above, with record warmth in parts of the western United States and Canada, various regions in eastern Africa, parts of Scandinavia and northwestern Russia, part of south central China, and an area of northeastern Australia. Central India, southeastern Mauritania, central Mexico, and eastern Canada were cooler than average. Part of northeastern Canada was much cooler than average, with the region observing temperatures at least 3°C (5°F) below average. On the other side of the continent, most of central to western North America had temperatures at least 3°C higher than the 20th century average. Temperatures were also at least 3°C above average across most of Eurasia, with the exception of Far East Russia south of the East Siberian Sea, which was cooler than average.

 

Global Highlights February 2015

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for February 2015 was the second highest for February in the 136-year period of record, at 0.82°C (1.48°F), above the 20th century average of 12.1°C (53.9°F). The warmest February occurred in 1998, which was 0.86°C (1.55°F) above average. Nine of the past 12 months have been either warmest or second warmest on record for their respective months (March and July 2014 were each fourth warmest, while November was seventh warmest).

The average global temperature across land surfaces was 1.68°C (3.02°F) above the 20th century average of 3.2°C (37.8°F), the second highest February temperature on record, behind only 2002. This February (2015) was much warmer than last February (2014), when the average global land surface temperature was just 0.31°C (0.56°F) above average and the 44th warmest on record. However, there were some similarities between this February and last, most notably colder-than-average temperatures across the central to eastern United States and much warmer-than-average temperatures over Scandinavia, a result of the subpolar jet stream position during each of those months. In February 2015, cooler to much-cooler-than average conditions overtook the entire eastern half of the United States and the eastern third of Canada, with some record cold pockets seen around the Great Lakes region and part of northeastern Canada near Hudson Bay. The majority of the world's land surfaces, however, were warmer than average, with much-warmer-than average temperatures widespread across Central America, northern and central South America, Australia, most of Africa, and much of Eurasia, including a broad swath that covered most of Russia. In stark contrast to the eastern United States, the western United States was encompassed by record warmth. The warm-cold pattern over the country has been observed over much of the past two years.

 

Global Highlights January 2015

The January 2015 globally-averaged temperature across land and ocean surfaces was 0.77°C (1.39°F) above the 20th century average of 12.0°C (53.6°F), the second highest on record for January since records began in 1880. The warmest January was in 2007, when the monthly global temperature was 0.86°C (1.55°F) above average.

The global land surface temperature was 1.43°C (2.57°F) above average, also the second highest on record for January behind 2007. The Northern Hemisphere was third warmest for the month over land, while the Southern Hemisphere had its 19th highest January land temperature in the 136-year period of record. Across the globe, much warmer-than-average temperatures were observed across much of central to eastern Asia, much of Europe, parts of western North America and southern North America stretching through Central America into northern and eastern South America, according to the January Land & Ocean Temperatures Departure from Average and Percentiles maps above. Some areas in southern Siberia and Far East Russia were more than 5°C (9°F) warmer than their long-term (1981–2010) monthly averages. Cooler-than-average conditions were notable across part of northern Australia, eastern Canada, and small regions of southern North America. A part of the Northern Territory in Australia was much below average during the month, the only land area around the globe with this distinction.