- Potential Impacts
- Avoid, Minimize, Mitigate
- T & E Species
- Nebraska At-Risk Species
- Northern Long-eared Bat Information
- Wildlife Laws & Policies
- Regional HCP & EIS
- Wildlife in Nebraska are found in habitats ranging from marshes, streams, prairies, forests, and in your backyard.
- Over 95% or approximately 450 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians are not hunted in Nebraska but provide aesthetic, cultural, and economic value to Nebraskans.
- Every spring and fall millions of waterfowl, cranes, shorebirds, and more stop in Nebraska during their migration.
- More than 30 wildlife species are listed as threatened or endangered in Nebraska and are protected by state and federal laws.
- Forty Biologically Unique Landscapes have been designated in Nebraska as well as species that may be at-risk of extinction or extirpation from the state.
- Nebraska has a wide variety of public conservation lands that are important for wildlife conservation and recreation.
- Potential impacts to wildlife and the environment from wind energy development can be through direct impacts on individual animals and through indirect impacts that cause loss or degradation of habitat.
- Through impact avoidance, minimization, and mitigation, impacts to wildlife and the environment by wind energy development can be reduced.
- Tools have been developed to reduce the potential impacts to wildlife and the environment by wind energy development.
The potential impacts of wind energy development on wildlife are divided into direct and indirect impacts.
Direct impacts or mortality occur when birds and bats collide with wind turbines, towers, or transmission lines servicing wind farms. The change in pressure around a wind turbine can cause internal hemorrhaging or barotrauma that leads to death in bats.
The greatest number of turbine-related mortalities occur in and along migration routes and include:
- Mountain passes
- Large river valleys
- Ridge-tops and bluffs
- Stop-over sites such as wetlands
- An overview of research from the past 20 years indicates that bird collisions range from 0 up to more than 30 collisions/turbine/year (Kuvlesky et al. 2007).
- Passerines (night migrants in particular) have been estimated to have a collision rate of 2.19 birds/turbine/year for wind farms located on rangelands, agricultural lands, or woodlands in the U.S. (Erickson et al. 2001).
- Raptors have longer life spans and reproduce at a slower rate than other birds. Collision mortalities could have greater impacts on their populations than other bird popultions. At Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area in California, it is estimated that 881-1,300 birds are killed annually (Thelander 2004) with raptors accounting for about 570-835 of the dead birds (Smallwood and Thelander 2005).
- Bat collision rates at one study site were 47.53 bats/turbine/year (Kerns and Kerlinger unpublished report).
- It is estimated that between 2000-2011, about 975,000 bats were killed by wind turbines in the U.S. and Canada.
Indirect impacts of wind energy development to wildlife can be from habitat loss and/or degradation from wind farm and the associated infrastructure and/or from changes of wildlife behavior that result in them avoiding the area around the wind farm. Indirect impacts represent an environmental cost that may be greater than direct impacts, especially in the grasslands of the Great Plains.
Wind farm construction and infrastructure, including roads and transmission lines, can:
- Fragment habitats
- Create barriers to migration for small animals
- Introduce invasive species
- Disturb animal behavior
- Displace wildlife from an area
- The construction of roads has been shown to negatively impact a number of bird species present in an area, facilitate the spread of invasive plants, and increase habitat fragmentation (Ingelfinger and Anderson 2004).
- Wind turbines constructed on a prairie landscape are a tall structure in a "sea" of grass. Birds that have evolved on prairie landscapes may reacted negatively to the presence of wind turbines in their habitat (Stewart et al. 2005, Leddy et al. 1999).
- The lesser prairie-chicken will leave areas of otherwise suitable habitat to avoid tall features (Anderson 1969), especially anthropogenic features(Pitman et al. 2005, Pruett et al. 2009, Robel et al. 2004).
Researchers, natural resource managers, wind farm developers, and other stakeholders continue to work on ways to avoid, minimize, and mitigate the potential direct and indirect impacts of wind energy development on wildlife. Using tools, such as state and federal guidance documents, can guide wind farm site selection that takes into account wildlife and habitats. As we learn more about how wildlife and habitats are impacted by wind energy development, we can work towards developing ways to further minimize potential impacts.
Avoid, Minimize, Mitigate
The potential impacts of wind energy development on wildlife and habitats have been studied and several have been identified. There may be additional impacts to wildlife and habitat that have not yet been identified.
It is important to take steps to avoid and minimize known and unknown potential impacts. For more detailed recommendations, check out the Guidelines for Avoiding, Minimizing, and Mitigating Impacts of Wind Energy on Biodiversity in Nebraska and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines.
Recommendations to avoid and minimize impacts:
- Consult natural resource agencies: The Nebraska Game and Parks Commission and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service know of the locations of species of concern and consulting with these agencies is highly recommended early in the wind energy development planning process.
- Siting or determining the location of the wind energy facility is a very important part of avoiding and minimizing potential impacts to wildlife.
- Use the Nebraska's Biodiversity and Wind Energy Siting and Mitigation Map: In Nebraska, the Nebraska's Biodiversity and Wind Energy Siting and Mitigation Map map shows the relative sensitivity of wildlife habitats to wind energy and mitigation areas, but it was not designed to evaluate wind energy facility siting at specific locations.
- Site on previously altered landscapes: Siting wind energy facilities on previously altered landscapes and using existing roads and utility corridors can help reduce habitat fragmentation and other potential indirect impacts of wind energy development.
- Site away from important wildlife and plant habitat: Siting wind energy facilities near areas have been identified as important to fish, wildlife, plants, and/or aesthetics is not recommended; establishing a buffer between these areas and the wind energy facility could help avoid and minimize impacts to wildlife and habitat.
- Use free-standing support towers: Free-standing support towers for turbines and meteorological towers can help reduce bird and bat fatalities by minimizing the perch locations compared to lattice support towers and flight hazards associated with guy-wires.
- Space turbines and place parallel to migration routes: Determining the proper spacing and orientation of turbines at a wind energy facility may help reduce avian and bat collisions.
- Bury electric power lines within facility: To reduce avian mortality, it is recommended that power lines should be buried. Above ground power lines should be marked with bird flight diverters.
- Use white strobe lights, if required: If lights are required by the FAA, white strobe lights are recommended; the number, intensity, and flashes per minute should be minimized. Steady-burning lights are not recommended because they have been shown to attract night-migrating birds.
- Feathering turbine blades below cut-in speed: Bats are more likely to be killed by wind turbines during periods of low wind speed. If the blades are not turning during these wind speeds, bat fatalities can be reduced (Baerwald et al. 2009).
- Raise cut-in speed: By increasing the wind speed in which the turbine blades start to turn, bat fatalities can be reduced.
- Curtail operations during periods of high bird and bat activity: Pausing energy production when there is great danger of bird and/or bat fatalities can be done regularly or in specific instances.
- Develop and maintain an Operational Contingency Plan: Having a plan that outlines when and why turbines will be curtailed can be a valuable tool and is recommended for whooping cranes for almost all wind energy facilities in Nebraska. Plans for other species or species groups, such as waterfowl, would be valuable as well.
Threatened and Endangered Species in Nebraska
Nebraska has plant and animal species that are listed as threatened or endangered at the federal and/or state level. Populations of animals or plants can decline due to a variety of factors including, but not limited to, habitat loss or degradation, invasive species, disease, and human-related mortality. There are federal and state programs established to protect endangered and threatened species.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is the principal federal partner responsible for administering the Endangered Species Act (ESA), federal legislation intended to provide a means to conserve the ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend and provide programs for consevation of those species, thus preventing extinction of plants and animals.
The USFWS definitions:
- Endangered Species - an animal or plant species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
- Threatened Species - an animal or plant species likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
- Extinct Species - a species that no longer exists. For ESA, a species currently believed to be extinct.
- Ecosystem - a dynamic and interrelating complex of plant and animal communities and their associated nonliving (such as physical and chemical) environment.
Information from the USFWS Endangered Species Program: http://www.fws.gov/endangered/.
The Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) has an objective to preserve and increase populations of Nebraska's endangered and threatened species of wildlife and plants. Through the NGPC Natural Heritage Program, they strive to build resiliency of Nebraska's ecosystems by enhancing the habitat that wildlife need to survive and to prevent future threatened and endangered species listings. The Nebraska Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act is the Nebraska law that protects listed species. A species may be at-risk of extinction in Nebraska, but not throughout its entire range. Therefore, some species have a state status as endangered or threatened, but may be listed differently under the federal status.
Nebraska endangered and threatened species resources:
- Endangered and Threatened Species Range Maps (individual species maps available by clicking on species name in table below)
- Nebraska Endangered and Threatened Species List(shown below)
- Spatial data of Nebraska Endangered and Threatened Species for use with GIS available at: http://outdoornebraska.ne.gov/wildlife/programs/nongame/Heritage/ET_Ranges.asp
Nebraska Endangered and Threatened Species
|Common Name||Scientific Name||State Status||Federal Status|
|Eskimo Curlew*||Numenius borealis||Endangered||Endangered|
|Whooping Crane||Grus americana||Endangered||Endangered|
|Interior Least Tern||Sternula antillarum athalassos||Endangered||Endangered|
|Piping Plover||Charadrius melodus||Threatened||Threatened|
|Mountain Plover||Charadrius montanus||Threatened|
|Black-footed Ferret*||Mustela nigripes||Endangered||Endangered|
|Northern Long-eared Bat||Myotis septentrionalis||Threatened||Threatened|
|Swift Fox||Vulpes velox||Endangered|
|River Otter||Lutra canadensis||Threatened|
|Southern Flying Squirrel||Glaucomys volans||Threatened|
|Pallid Sturgeon||Scaphirhynchus albus||Endangered||Endangered|
|Topeka Shiner||Notropis topeka||Endangered||Endangered|
|Sturgeon Chub||Macrhybopsis gelida||Endangered|
|Blacknose Shiner||Notropis heterolepis||Endangered|
|Lake Sturgeon||Acipenser fulvescens||Threatened|
|Northern Redbelly Dace||Phoxinus eos||Threatened|
|Finescale Dace||Phoxinus neogaeus||Threatened|
|American Burying Beetle||Nicrophorus americanus||Endangered||Endangered|
|Salt Creek Tiger Beetle||Cicindela nevadica lincolniana||Endangered||Endangered|
|Scaleshell Mussel||Leptodea leptodon||Endangered||Endangered|
|Blowout Penstemon||Penstemon haydenii||Endangered||Endangered|
|Colorado Butterfly Plant||Gaura neomexicana ssp. coloradensis||Endangered||Threatened|
|Western Prairie Fringed Orchid||Platanthera praeclara||Threatened||Threatened|
|Ute Ladies’-tresses||Spiranthes diluvialis||Threatened||Threatened|
|American Ginseng||Panax quinquefolium||Threatened|
|Small White Lady’s Slipper||Cypripedium candidum||Threatened|
|* Species of historical occurrence in Nebraska but no known extant populations.|
The Nebraska Natural Legacy Project
The Nebraska Natural Legacy Project is a science-based blueprint for conserving Nebraska's biological diversity using voluntary, non-regulatory opportunities.
The Legacy Project is Nebraska’s State Wildlife Action Plan, which is part of a nationwide effort involving all 50 states and six territories.
Collaboration with many groups, private landowners and other stakeholders is key to the success of the Natural Legacy Project. A 25 member Partnership Team representing the interests of Nebraska’s conservation, agricultural, and Native American communities guides the planning process.
The goals of the Natural Legacy Project:
- Reverse the decline of at-risk species (and avoid the need for state or federal listing as threatened or endangered).
- Recover currently listed species and allow for their de-listing.
- Keep common species common.
- Conserve natural communities.
The Nebraska Natural Legacy Project Science Team developed a two-tiered approach to identifying species that may be at-risk of extinction or extirpation from the state.
- Tier I - species that are globally or nationally at-risk; includes species currently state or federally listed.
- Tier II - species that are at-risk in Nebraska, but may be doing well in other parts of their range.
Several at-risk species may be sensitive to wind energy development. Following are a few examples.
- Fringed Myotis (Myotis thysanodes pahasapensis)- Tier I;
- Townsend’s Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii) - Tier II;
- Long-legged Myotis (Myotis volans) - Tier II;
- Northern Long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) - Threatened (state and federal);
- Evening bats (Nycticeius humeralis) - Tier II;
- Tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus)- Candidate for Tier I
- Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus) - Candidate for Tier I
- Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido)- Tier I;
- Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) - Tier I;
- Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) - Tier I;
- Peregrine Falcon (Falco mexicanus ) - Tier II;
- Townsend's Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) - Tier II.
Biologically Unique Landscapes
The Nebraska Natural Legacy Project selected landscapes based on known occurrences of natural communities and at-risk species to meet set goals for each community type and certain at-risk species.
A set of landscapes were determined that offer some of the best opportunities for conserving the full array of biological diversity in Nebraska. Over thirty landscapes across the state were designated Biologically Unique Landscapes and are shaded green on the map below.
For more information about Biologically Unique Landscapes and the Nebraska Natural Legacy Project visit: http://outdoornebraska.ne.gov/wildlife/programs/legacy/.
Northern Long-eared Bat Information
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis), also known as the Northern Myotis, as threatened throughout its range under the Endangered Species Act on May 4, 2015. The Final 4(d) Rule went into efect on February 16, 2016.
Final 4(d) Rule Highlights:
- For all areas within the range of the northern long-eared bat, all purposeful take is prohibited except:
- Removal of northern long-eared bats from human structures;
- Defense of human life (e.g., public health monitoring for rabies); or
- Removal of hazardous trees for the protection of human life and property.
- For areas of the country not affected by white-nose syndrome (i.e., areas outside the white-nose syndrome buffer zone), there are no prohibitions on incidental take.
- For areas of the country impacted by white-nose syndrome, incidental take is prohibited under the following circumstances:
- If it occurs within a hibernacula; or
- If it results from tree removal activities and
- The activity occurs within 0.25 mile (0.4 km) of a known, occupied hibernacula; or,
- The activity cuts or destroys a known, occupied maternity roost tree or other trees within a 150 foot radius from the maternity roost tree during the pup season from June 1 through July 31.
For the most up-to-date information on the listing, visit the USFWS Northern Long-Eared Bat website.
- Northern Long-eared Bat Interim Conference and Planning Guidance, USFWS Regions 2,3,4,5, & 6.
- Northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) Proposed Listing Memorandum Changes May 12, 2014.
Wildlife Laws & Policies
Regional Habitat Conservation Plans and Environmental Impact Statements
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) prohibits the "take" of listed species through direct harm or habitat destruction.
In 1982, an amendment was made to the ESA that authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to issue permits for "incidental take" of endangered and threatened wildlife species.
The amendment requires that permit applicants design, implement, and secure funding for a conservation plan, commonly called a Habitat Conservation Plan, that minimizes and mitigates harm to the impacted species during the proposed project.
There are currently two regional projects that include Nebraska.
For more information visit the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Permits website: http://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/permits/hcp/index.html.
Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP)
More than 15 wind energy companies, known as the Wind Energy Whooping Crane Action group or "WEWAG", are developing this regional HCP.
The HCP covers a 200-mile wide corridor across nine states (see map to left).
The HCP is looking at the potential impacts of wind energy development and operation on:
- Whooping Crane (Grus americana), endangered species;
- Interior Least Tern (Sterna antillarum athalassos), endangered species;
- Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus), endangered species;
- Lesser Prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate species.
"This EIS process gives us an opportunity to evaluate the impacts to dozens of imperiled species at a landscape level to ensure that wind energy development occurs in the right places in the right way," Dan Ashe, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Director.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Services Great Plains Wind Energy Fact Sheet: http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/Documents/R2ES/Wind/Species_FactSheet.pdf.
Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan webpage: http://www.greatplainswindhcp.org.
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS)
Western Area Power Administration and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will prepare a PEIS to evaluate the impacts of wind energy development in Western's Upper Great Plains Region.
The PEIS will consider wind energy projects that would connect with Western Area Power Administration's transmission system in their Upper Great Plains Customer Service Region
Areas included are all or parts of:
- North Dakota
- South Dakota
Areas also include the Service's grasslands and wetland easements in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
This PEIS will identify mitigation strategies, standard construction practices, best management practices (BMPs)and establish a comprehensive environmental program for evaluating future projects.
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Programmatic EIS webpage: http://plainswindeis.anl.gov/index.cfm