river birch - Betulaceae Betula nigra

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Taxonomy

FamilyBetulaceae
GenusBetula
Speciesnigra
Common Nameriver birch
iTree CodeBENI

Plant Form

FormTree: narrow crown; often multiple trunk
Height70 feet
Spread40 feet
DeciduousYes

Identification Description

Foliagebroad angled base with pointed tip (rhombic or nearly triangular); doubly serrate edgeLeaf Type Information IconSimple
Needles0
Barkvery papery and exfoliating with white, brown, salmon colors; becoming dark brown and furrowed or platy with age
Budorange/brown, slender and hairy, overlapping scales (imbricate)Bud Arrangement Information IconAlternate
Twigbrown/gray, slender and flexible, hairy (pubescent); reddish and smooth with age
Flowercatkins; male: performed (year before), drooping, light green; female: shorter and upright, green; male and female on the same tree (monoecious)
Fruitpaper light brown papery "cone" containing small nutlet
Fall Coloryellow

Site Characteristics

USDA Zones   info for zonespH LevelsSalt Tolerance
Min3bMin3.0SoilIntolerant
Max8bMax6.5SprayIntolerant

Shade ToleranceDrought ToleranceAllelopathy
IntolerantIntolerantYes

Species Status

Nebraska Native
U.S. NativeYes Check
Region of OriginUnited States
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