Bud

Terminal Bud

Bud at the end of the twig.

False Bud

Buds at nearly the end of a twig, but typically off center or “crooked” creating a zig-zag growth pattern

Lateral Buds

Buds are along the twig.

Bud or Leaf Arrangement

Alternate

Buds or leaves are alternating position on the twig

Opposite

Buds or leaves are opposite of each other on the twig.

Whorled

Buds or leaves that radiate from a single point and surround the stem. A whorl consists of at least three elements. A pair of opposite leaves is not called a whorl.

Leaf Type

Simple

one leaf blade attached to a stem ending at a bud (ex: maples, oaks)

Compound

multiple leaf blades (leaflets) and can be pinnately (long; ex: ashes, walnuts) or palmately (think palm of your hand; ex: buckeyes, horsechestnut)

Leaf Edge

Margin

the edge of the a leaf or leaflet

Serrate

Generally referring to a leaf edge (margin), think of a bread knife blade

Reproductive Structures

Monoecious

Both male and female reproductive structures (flowers or cones) on an individual plant (ex: elms, pines)

Dioecious

Male and female reproductive structures (flowers or cones) on separate plants (ex: Kentucky coffeetree, ginkgo)

Other

Lenticels: small white dots or lines on bark, twigs, or fruit