river birch - Betulaceae Betula nigra


Common Nameriver birch
iTree CodeBENI

Plant Form

FormTree: narrow crown; often multiple trunk
Height70 feet
Spread40 feet

Identification Description

Foliagebroad angled base with pointed tip (rhombic or nearly triangular); doubly serrate edge Leaf Type  Information Icon Simple
Barkvery papery and exfoliating with white, brown, salmon colors; becoming dark brown and furrowed or platy with age
Budorange/brown, slender and hairy, overlapping scales (imbricate) Bud Arrangement Information Icon Alternate
Twigbrown/gray, slender and flexible, hairy (pubescent); reddish and smooth with age
Flowercatkins; male: performed (year before), drooping, light green; female: shorter and upright, green; male and female on the same tree (monoecious)
Fruitpaper light brown papery "cone" containing small nutlet
Fall Coloryellow

Site Characteristics

USDA Zones   info for zones pH LevelsSalt Tolerance
Min3b Min3.0 SoilIntolerant
Max8b Max6.5 SprayIntolerant

Shade ToleranceDrought ToleranceAllelopathy
Intolerant Intolerant Yes

Species Status

Nebraska Native
U.S. Native Yes Check
Region of OriginUnited States
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