Windbreak (Shelterbelt) Bibliography Help

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Welcome to the Windbreak (Shelterbelts) Bibliography.   Here we provide sources and published references from the literature, many of which you can access directly from the citation.  Some are open sources, others may require access to a research library (University or Government library) while a few may require purchase from the publisher.  You may also contact us at the Nebraska Maps & More Store at the School of Natural Resources, (402) 472-3471,  You can also contact the senior author directly (the address is usually indicated on the title page of the author) and request a copy from them.

Authors should not cite the Windbreak (Shelterbelts) Bibliography as a source in their published or unpublished works but should cite only those publications listed therein.

You can search the Bibliography by title, author, year of publication or keywords.  The search is not case sensitive. In order to keep the list of searchable keywords manageable, we have grouped very specific topics into one key word.  For example, we have not listed all the crops mentioned in the various publications but rather have used the keywords “crop or crops” to indicate that the article involves some aspect of the impact of shelter on crop production.  Listed below are the most often used keywords that you can search and the sub-topics that are included in those key words. Note that there may be overlaps between topics with several papers showing up under several of the keywords.  Note also that “windbreak” “shelterbelt” and “hedgerow” are often used interchangeably.


  • Benefit/benefits: This includes all the other general impacts/benefits that are not identified individually.
  • Crops/crop: Crop is broadly defined to include both grain and forage crops as well as horticultural crops, including both fruits and vegetables as well as floral crops.
  • Erosion: Basically any publication dealing with any aspect of wind erosion but may include water erosion articles as well. It includes articles dealing with the mechanics of wind erosion, control of wind erosion and costs (on-site as well as off-site) of erosion and its control. These would include costs to the landowner and to society.
  • Farmstead: This category would include home heating and cooling costs, maintenance costs, and outdoor working conditions. Many of the articles dealing with societal costs are found under this term.
  • History: Here you will find articles on the long history of shelterbelts. Most are related to the Great Plains of the US but there are also articles from Europe, Asia and Australia.
  • Insects: This general topic includes reports dealing with both the positive aspect of windbreaks such as pollinator species and predatory species and of course the impact of various pest species. These articles relate to the habitat provided by the windbreak and its impacts on species.
  • Livestock: As was the case with the broad topic of crops, the keyword “livestock” includes a wide variety of species beef cattle and sheep to more exotic species found in various agricultural areas.
  • Management: This topic includes all aspects of establishment or planting, growing, and maintaining a windbreak and includes design issues such as spacing within the tree rows, spacing between rows and similar issues and weed control. You will find advantages and disadvantages of various designs.
  • Mechanics: This topic contains the basic physics of how windbreaks work. How the wind flows in and around the windbreak. The advantages of various designs are included here as well. There are also articles on the basic physics of wind flow and pressure changes in and around the windbreak. If you are looking for the mathematical equations associated with how windbreaks work this is the place to start. You might also find papers modelling the physics of windflow in and around the windbreak.
  • Microclimate: This topic includes all of the impacts on environmental conditions influenced by the reduction in windspeed by the windbreak. These include but not limited to: air and soil temperatures, humidity, evaporation from various surfaces, turbulence.
  • Pests: Here you will find information on reported pest problems associated with windbreaks. These usually will be insects, diseases, and wildlife. There may also be references dealing with physical damage by wind such as “green snap” or crop lodging.
  • Plant/Plants: Here you will find information on plant diversity within the understory of windbreaks. This might include invasive species, regeneration of the original windbreak species, and recruitment of additional tree species from nearby seed sources.
  • Plant materials: This topic is limited to species used as windbreak species. Recommendations for various regions or states will be found here.
  • Policy: This section deals with the various regulations and policies associated the windbreaks. Papers from various areas or regions may include evaluation of various programs such as cost-share programs.
  • Protection: Here you will find the papers related to the degree of protection provided by various windbreak designs. How design influences the area of protection. How to manipulate design to get a particular level of protection.
  • Review: Here we list the existing reviews of windbreak and shelterbelts. We have not relisted all of the citations included in these reviews and a search of the reviews may be the best place to start on any topic.
  • Wildlife:
  • Shelterbelt, Wind, Windbreak or Wind Break: May turn up all or most of the publications listed in the data base