Rezaul Mahmood

Rezaul Mahmood

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Contact Information

TitleApplied Climatologist | Director, High Plains Regional Climate Center
Faculty RankProfessor
Address707 South Hardin Hall
3310 Holdrege Street
Lincoln NE
  • office: 402-472-6166
  • fax: 402-472-2946
VitaeDownload file


Selected Publications

Fiebrich, C. A., Brinson, K. R., Mahmood, R., Foster, S. A., Schargorodski, M., Edwards, N. L., Redmond, C. A., Atkins, J. R., Andresen, J. A., and Lin, X. 2020. Towards the standardization of mesoscale meteorological networks. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 37: 2033-2048
Flanagan, P. X., Mahmood, R., Umphlett, N. A., Hacker, E., Ray, C., Sorensen, W., Shulski, M., Stiles, C. J., Pearson, D., and Fajman, P. 2020. A hydrometeorological assessment of the historic 2019 flood of Nebraska, Iowa, and South Dakota. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101: E817-E829 Online
López-Espinoza, E., Zavala-Hidalgo, J., Mahmood, R., Gómez-Ramos, R. 2020. Assessing the land use and land cover data representation on weather forecast quality: A case study in central Mexico. Atmosphere 11, 1242; doi:10.3390/atmos11111242. Online
Mahmood, R., Schargorodski, M., Rappin, E., Griffin, M., Collins, P., Knupp, K., Quilligan, A., Wade, R., Cary, K., and Foster, S. 2020. The total solar eclipse of 2017: Meteorological observations from a statewide mesonet and atmospheric profiling systems. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101: E720-737. Online
Na-Yemeh, D., Mamood, R., Goodrich, G., Younger, K., Cary, K., Durkee, J.D. 2020. Growing Season Air mass Equivalent Temperature (TE) in the East Central USA. Climate. 8,95: 1-17. Online
MAHMOOD, R., Schargorodski, M., Foster, S., Quilligan, A. 2019. A technical overview of the Kentucky Mesonet.36: 1753-1771. American Meteorology Society, September 2019: 1753-1771.Online
Nair, U., Rappin, E., Foshee, E., Smith, W., Pielke, R. A., Mahmood, R., Case, J. L., Blankenship, C. B., Shepherd, M., Santanello, J. A., Niyogi, D. 2019. Influence of land cover and soil moisture based brown ocean effect on an extreme rainfall event froOnline
Younger, K., Mahmood, R., Goodrich, G., Pielke, R. A., Durkee, J. 2019. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (TE) for East Central USA. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 136: 65-75.Online
Zhang, T., Mahmood, R., Lin, X., Pielke, R. A. 2019. Irrigation impacts on minimum and maximum surface moist enthalpy in the Central Great Plains of the USA. Weather and Climate Extremes, 23, 100197.Online
Dewan, A., Ongee, E., Rafiuddin, M., Rahman, M. M., Mahmood, R. 2018. Lightning activity associated with precipitation and CAPE over Bangladesh. International Journal of Climatology 38: 1649–1660, DOI: 10.1002/joc.5286
Johnson, C. M.*, Xingang, F., Mahmood, R., Groves, C., Polk, J., and Yan, J. 2018. Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting model sensitivity to land and soil conditions representative of karst landscapes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 166: 503-530. DOI 10.1007/s10546-017-0312-8 Online
Mahmood, R. (2018). Drought and land cover conditions in the Great Plains. Earth Interactions.
Mahmood, R. (2018). Potential surface hydroclimate Responses to increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and land use and land cover changes. International Journal of Climatology.Online
Mahmood, R. (2018). Spatial and temporal analysis of a 17–year lightning climatology over Bangladesh with LIS data. Theoretical and Applied Climatology.Online
Chen, L., Zhuguo, M., Mahmood, R., Zhao, T., Li, Z., and Li, Y. 2017. Recent land cover changes and sensitivity of the model simulations to various land cover datasets for China. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 129: 395-408. DOI: 10.1007/s00703-016-0478-5. Online
Craft, K**, Mahmood, R., King, S. A., Goodrich, G., and Yan, J. 2017. Droughts of the twentieth and early twenty first centuries: Influences on the production of beef and Forage in Kentucky, USA. Science of the Total Environment 577:122-135. Online
Mahmood, R. and Pielke Sr., R. A. 2017. Land use/cover change and climate. Wiley-AAG International encyclopedia of Geography 1-11, DOI: 10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0511
Mahmood, R., Boyles, R., Brinson, K., Fiebrich, C., Foster, S. A., Hubbard, K. G., Robinson, D., Andresen, J., and Leathers D. 2017. Mesonets: Meso-scale weather and climate observations for the U.S. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 98: 1349-1361. Online
Winchester, J., Mahmood, R., Rodgers, W., Hossain, F., Rappin, E., Durkee, J., and Chronis, T. 2017. A Model-based assessment of potential impacts of man-made reservoirs on precipitation. Earth Interactions 21: 1-31. Online
Kusunose, Y. and Mahmood, R. 2016. Imperfect forecasts and decision making in agriculture. Agricultural Systems 146: 103-110.
Lin, X., Pielke, Sr., R. A., Mahmood, R., Fiebrich, C. A., and Aiken R. 2016. Observational evidence of temperature trends at two levels in the surface layer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 827–841.
Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr., R. A., and McAlpine, C. 2016. Climate relevant land use and land cover change policies. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97:195-202. Online
Pielke Sr., R. A., Mahmood, R., and McAlpine, C. 2016. Land’s complex role in climate change. Physics Today 69 (10): 40-46. (invited) [Also published in a Japanese language journal, Parity, June, no. 6, 2017]. Online
Quintanar, A.I., Mahmood, R., Suarez, A., and Leeper, R. 2016. Atmospheric sensitivity to roughness length in a regional atmospheric model over the Ohio-Tennessee river valley. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 128:315–330. DOI 10.1007/s00703-015-0415-z Online
Craft, K., Mahmood, R., King, S. A., Goodrich, G., and Yan, J. 2015.Twentieth century droughts and agriculture: Examples from impacts on soybean production in Kentucky, USA. Ambio 44: 557-568. DOI 10.1007/s13280-014-0598-4 Online
Fan, X., Ma, Z., Yang, Q., Han, Y., and Mahmood, R., Zheng, Z. 2015. Land use/land cover changes and regional climate over the Loess Plateau during 2001-2009 – Part I. Observed evidences. Climatic Change 129: 427-440. DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1069-4. Online
Fan, X., Ma, Z., Yang, Q., Yunhuan Han, Y., and Mahmood, R. 2015. Land use/land cover changes and regional climate over the Loess Plateau during 2001-2009 – Part II. Interrelationship from observations. Climatic Change 129: 441-455. DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1068-5. Online
Ren, D., Leslie, L. M., Shen, X., Hong, Y., Duan, Q., Mahmood, R., Li, Y., Huang, G., Guo, W., Lynch, M. J. 2015. The gravity environment of Zhouqu debris flow of August 2010 and its implication for future recurrence. International Journal of Geosciences 6: 317-325. Online
Xu, Z., Mahmood, R., Yang, Z-L, Fu, C., Su, H. 2015. Investigating diurnal and seasonal climatic response to land use and land cover change over monsoon Asia with the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 120: 1137-1152. DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022479. Online
Durkee, J., Degu, A. M., Hossain, F., Mahmood, R., Winchester, J., and Chronis, T. 2014. Investigating the effect of Land between the Lakes on storm patterns. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53: 1506-1524. Online
Lin, X., Hubbard, K. G., Mahmood, R., and Sassenrath, G. F. 2014. Assessing satellite-based start-of-season trends in the U.S High Plains. Environmental Research Letters 9 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/104016 Online
Lovanh, N., Quintanar, A. I., Rysz, M., Loughrin, J., Mahmood, R. 2014. Effect of heat fluxes on ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7:16-29. DOI: 10.3923/jest.2013
Loveland, T. R. and Mahmood, R. 2014. A Design for a Sustained Assessment of Climate Forcing and Feedbacks Related to Land Use Land Cover Change. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95: 1563-1572 Online
Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr., R. A. Hubbard, K. G., Niyogi, D., Dirmeyer, P., McAlpine, C., Carleton, A., Hale, R., Gameda, S., Beltran-Przekurat, A., Baker, B., McNider, R., Legates, D. R., Shepherd, M., Du, J., Blanken, P., Frauenfeld, O. W., Nair, U. S., and Fall, S. 2014. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate. International Journal of Climatology 34: 929–953. DOI: 10.1002/joc.3736 Online
Suarez, A., Mahmood, R., Quintanar, A. I., Beltran-Przekurat, A., and Pielke Sr., R. A. 2014. A comparison of the MM5 and the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System simulations for land-atmosphere interactions under varying soil moisture. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography 66, 21486, Online
Mahmood, R., Keeling, T., Foster, S. A., and Hubbard, K. G. 2013. Corrigendum to “Did irrigation impact 20th century temperature in the High Plains aquifer region?” Applied Geography 40:51.
Mahmood, R., Keeling, T., Foster, S. A., and Hubbard, K. G. 2013. Did irrigation impact 20th century temperature in the High Plains aquifer region? Applied Geography 38:11-21 Online
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Lovanh, N., Rawley, J., E. Becerra-Acosta and Loughrin, J. 2013. Estimating greenhouse gas emission from a waste lagoon. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 29: 511-519. (doi: 10.13031/aea.29.10013) Online
Durkee, J., Campbell, L., Berry, K., Jordan, D., Goodrich, G., Mahmood, R., and Foster, S. 2012. A synoptic perspective of the record 1-2 May 2010 Mid-south rain and flood event. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93: 611-620
Loughrin, J. H, Quintanar, A. I., Cook, K. L., Lovanh, N. C., Mahmood, R., Becerra-Acosta, E. 2012. Seasonal Variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, DOI 10.1007/s11270-012-1134-4 Online
Mahmood, R., Ashley, A., Hubbard, K., You, J. (2012). Observed data-based assessment of relationships among soil moisture at various depths, precipitation, and temperature. Applied Geography, 34, 255-264.Online
Quintanar, A. I. and Mahmood, R. 2012. Ensemble forecast spread induced by soil moisture changes over mid-south and neighbouring mid-western region of the USA. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, DOI: 10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17156 Online
Leeper, R., Mahmood, R., Quintanar. A. I. 2011. Influence of karst landscape on Planetary boundary layer atmosphere: A Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model- based investigation. Journal of hydrometeorology, 12: 1512-1529 Online
Legates, D. R., Mahmood, R., Levia, D. F., DeLiberty, T. D., Quiring, S., Houser, C., Nelson, F. E. 2011. Soil Moisture: A central and unifying theme in physical geography. Progress in Physical Geography 35:65-86. Online
Loughrin, J.H., Quintanar, A.I., N. Lovanh, Mahmood, R. 2011. Heat flux measurements and modeling of malodorous compounds above an anaerobic swine lagoon. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 27: 463-471, DOI: 10.1007/s11270-010-0601-z. Online
Mahmood, R., Leeper, R., Quintanar, A. I. 2011. Sensitivity of planetary boundary layer atmosphere to historical and future changes of land use/land cover, vegetation fraction, and soil moisture in Western Kentucky, USA. Global and Planetary Change, 78: 36-53 doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.05.007 Online
Pielke Sr., R. A., Pitman, A., Niyogi, D., Mahmood, R., McAlpine, C. Hossain, F., Klein Goldewijk, K., Nair, U., Betts, R., Fall, S., Reichstein, M., Kabat, P., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N. 2011. Land use/land cover changes and climate: Modeling analysis and observational evidence. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2: 828-850, doi: 10.1002/wcc.144. Online
Quintanar, A. I., Rodgers, W., Mahmood, R., Loughrin, J. H., and Lovanh, N. 2011. Energy flux comparisons in the surface layer of a waste lagoon during warm and cool season clear skies. Meteorological Applications (accepted)
Sen Roy, S. , Mahmood, R., Quintanar, A. I., and Gonzalez*, A. 2011. Impacts of irrigation on dry Season precipitation in India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 104: 193-207, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-010-0338-z. Online
Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr.,, R. A. Hubbard, K. G., Niyogi, D., Bonan, G., Lawrence, P., Baker, B., McNider, R., McAlpine, C., Etter, A., Gameda, S., Qian, B., Carleton, A., Beltran-Przekurat, A., Chase, T., Quintanar, A. I., Adegoke, J. O., Vezhapparambu, S., Conner, G., Asefi, S., Sertel, E., Legates, D. R., Wu, Y., Hale, R., Frauenfeld, O. N., Watts, A., Shepherd, M., Mitra, C., Anantharaj, V. G., Fall, S., Lund, R., Nordfelt, A., Blanken, P., Du, J., Chang, H-I., Leeper, R., Nair, U. S., Dobler, S., Deo, R., Syktus, J. 2010. Impacts of land use land cover change on climate and future research priorities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91: 37-46. Online
Foster, S. and Mahmood, R. 2009. Spatial metadata for weather stations and the Interpretation of climate data. In Historical Climate variability and Impacts in the United States. Eds. Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux and Cary Mock. Springer-Verlag: New York. pp. 189-206. Online
Leeper, R., Mahmood, R, Quintanar, A. I. 2009. Near surface atmospheric response to simulated changes in land-cover, vegetation fraction, and soil moisture over Western Kentucky. .Publications in Climatology Vol. 62. No. 2. Pp. 41. (peer-reviewed monograph) Online
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2009. Agricultural Cool Island (ACI). In Land Use Policy. Eds. A. C. Denman and Oliver M. Penrod. New York: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 217-229.
Pielke Sr., R. A., Davey, C., Niyogi, D., Fall, S., Steinweg-Woods, J., Hubbard, K. G., in, X., Cai, M., Lim, Y-K., Li, H., Nielsen-Gammon, J., Gallo, K., Hale, R., Mahmood, R., Foster, S., McNider, R. T., Blanken, P. 2009. Reply to comment by David E. Parker, Phil Jones, Thomas C. Peterson, and John Kennedy on “Unresolved Issues with the Assessment of Multi-Decadal Global Land Surface Temperature Trends” Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 114, D05105, doi:10.1029/2008JD010938 Online
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Loughrin, J. H., Lovanh, N., Motley*, M. V. 2009. A system for estimating Bowen Ratio and evaporation from waste lagoons. ASABE, Applied Engineering in Agriculture 25: 923-932. Online
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Motley, M. V., Yan, J., Loughrin, J., Lovanh, N. 2009. Simulation of boundary layer trajectory dispersion sensitivity to soil moisture conditions: MM5 and Noah-based investigation. Atmospheric Environment 43: 3774-3785. Online
You, J, K. Hubbard, R. Mamood, V. Sridhar, and D. Todey. 2009. Quality Control of Soil Water Data in Applied Climate Information System--Case Study in Nebraska. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 15(3):200-209.Online
Loughrin, J. H., Lovanh, N., Quintanar, A., and Mahmood, R. 2008. Sampling of Malodorous compounds in air using stir bar sorbtive extraction. Transaction of the ASABE 51:1747-1752 Online
Mahmood, R. 2008. The Kentucky Mesonet: Background and future applications. In The Corn and Climate Report: A Practical Guide to Help Midwestern Farmers Understand and Respond to a Changing Climate. Eds. Jordan, B., Kluck, D., Mock, D., Schulz, P., Takle, G., and Wash, S. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. pp. 18-19. (Online)
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. , Leeper, R., and Foster, S. A. 2008. Increase in near surface atmospheric moisture content due to land use changes: Evidence from the observed dew point temperature data. Monthly Weather Review. 136(4):1554-1561.Online
Mahmood, R., and Foster, S. A. 2008. Meso-scale weather and climate observations in Kentucky for societal benefit. Focus on Geography, 50: 32-36. (Special issue on Kentucky) Online
Mahmood, R., R. Pielke, Sr. and K.G. Hubbard. 2007. Effect of human activities on the atmosphere. Trans. American Geophysical Union. 88(52),Online
Mahmood. R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2007. Relationship between soil moisture of near surface and multiple depths of the root zone under heterogeneous land uses and varying hydroclimatic conditions. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6578 (pp. 3449-3462) Online
Pielke, R. A. Sr., C. Davey, D. Niyogi, K. G. Hubbard, X. Lin, M. Cai, H. Li, J. Neilsen-Gammon, K. P. Gallo, R. Hale, and J. Angel, 2007: Unresolved issues with the assessment of multidecadal global surface temperature trends. Journal of Geophysical ReseOnline
Sen Roy, S., Mahmood, R. Niyogi, D. D. S., Lei, M., Foster, S. A., Hubbard, K., G., Douglas, E., Pielke Sr., R. A. 2007. Impacts of the agricultural Green Revolution induced land use changes on air temperatures in India. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, Vol. 112, D21108, doi:10.1029/2007JD008834. Online
Mahmood R., Foster, S. A., Keeling, T., Hubbard, K. G., Carlson, C., and Leeper, R. 2006. Impacts of irrigation on 20th century temperature in the Northern Great Plains. Global and Planetary Change, 54: 1-18. (Special issue on LULCC and its impacts on Climate) Online
Mahmood, R., Foster, S. A., Logan, D. 2006. The GeoProfile Metadata, Exposure of Instruments, and Measurement Bias in Climatic Record Revisited. International Journal of Climatology, 26: 1091-1124. Online
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K. G., and Christy Carlson 2004. Modification of growing season surface temperature records in the Northern Great Plains due to land use transformation: verification of modeling results and implication for global climate change. International Journal of Climatology, 24:311-327. Online
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K.G. 2004. An Analysis of Simulated Long-Term Soil Moisture Data for Three Land Uses Under Contrasting Hydroclimatic Conditions in the Northern Great Plains. Reprinted from: Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 5, pg 160-179, 2004.Online
Mahmood, R., Legates, D. R., Meo, M. 2004. The role of soil water availability in potential rainfed rice productivity in Bangladesh: Applications of the CERES-Rice model. Applied Geography, 24: 139-159 Online
Adegoke, J.O. R.A. Pielke Sr., J. Eastman, R. Mahmood and Hubbard K.G. 2003. Impact of irrigation on midsummer surface fluxes and temperature under dry synoptic conditions: A regional atmospheric model study of the U.S. High Plains. Monthly Weather Review
Hubbard, K.G., R. Mahmood, and C. Carlson. 2003. Estimating daily dew point temperature for the Northern Great Plains Using Maximum and Minimum Temperature . Journal of Applied Meteorology. 95(2):323-328.Online
Mahmood, R., Meo, M., Legates, D. R., and Morrissey, M. L. 2003. The CERES-Rice model-based estimates of potential monsoon season rainfed rice productivity in Bangladesh. The Professional Geographer, 55: 261-275. Online
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K.G. 2002. Effect of time of temperature observations and estimation on daily solar radiation for the Northern Great Plains, USA. Agronomy Journal. 94(4):723-733.Online
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K.G. 2001. Anthropogenic land use change in the North American tall grass-short grass transition and modification of near surface hydrologic cycle. Climate Research. 21:83-90 (Journal Series Number:13314)
Loughrin, J. H., Lovanh, N., and Mahmood, R. 2008. Equilibrium sampling used to monitor malodors in a swine waste lagoon. Journal of Environmental Quality, doi:10.2134/jeq2006.0534 (37: 1-6) Online
Pielke, R.A., C.A. Davey, D. Niyogi, S.Fall, J. Steinwe-Woods, K.G. Hubbard, X. Lin, M. Cai, Y. Lim, H. Li, J. Nielsen-Giammon, K. Gallo, R. Hale, R. Mahmood, S. Foster, R. McNider, P. Blanken. 2009. Reply to comment by David E. Parker et al. on UnresolveOnline
Quintanar, A., Mahmood, R., Loughrin, J., Lovanh, N. C. 2008. A coupled MM5-Noah land surface model-based assessment of sensitivity of planetary boundary layer variables to anomalous soil moisture conditions. Physical Geography, 29: 54-78 (DOI: 10.2747/0272- 3646.29.1.54) Online
Rezaul Mahmood and Kenneth G. Hubbard. 2003. Simulating sensitivity of soil moisture and evapotranspiration under heterogeneous soils and land uses. J. of Hydrology. 280: 72-90.Online



DegreeMajorInstitutionYear Awarded
Doctorate of PhilosophyGeography and ClimatologyUniversity of Oklahoma1999
Master of ArtsGeography and ClimatologyState University of New York, Albany1993
Master of ScienceGeographyUniversity of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh1989
Bachelor of ScienceGeographyUniversity of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh1988





TitleAwarded byYear Awarded
Great Plains FellowsCenter for Great Plains Studies - UNL2018


SNR Program Areas

  • Applied Climate and Spatial Science


Currently this page only displays grants that were awarded on 1/1/ 2009 to the present. If a grant was awarded prior to 1/1/ 2009 and is still active, it will not be displayed on this page.

Grant TitleHigh Plains Regional Climate Center (Additional Funding)
Starting Date09/01/2020


Ending Date05/31/2021
Funding Level$90,052.00
Funding AgencyNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Grant TitleUS Drought Portal Operaions and Development Support
Starting Date09/01/2020


Ending Date03/01/2021
Funding Level$150,000.00
Funding AgencyNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Grant TitleHigh Plains Regional Climate Center (additional funding)
Starting Date03/06/2020


Ending Date03/05/2021
Funding Level$562,500.00
Funding AgencyNational Oceanic and Atmospheric


Grant TitleNIDIS Help Desk Support AWR FY20 (Additional Funding)
Starting Date09/01/2019


Ending Date08/31/2020
Funding Level$150,000.00
Funding AgencyNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Association


Grant TitleRegional Climate Center - National Weather Service Climate Services Partnership
Starting Date08/26/2019


Ending Date08/25/2020
Funding Level$13,941.00
Funding AgencyNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Association


Grant TitleGRAINEX
Starting Date08/18/2019


Ending Date08/31/2020
Funding Level$103,035.00
Funding AgencyNational Science Foundation


Grant TitleHigh Plains Regional Climate Center (additional funding)
Starting Date03/06/2019


Ending Date03/05/2020
Funding Level$562,500.00
Funding AgencyUS Department of Commerce/NOAA



Graduate Programs

Master of Applied Science

Master of Science in Natural Resource Sciences
including specializations in

  • Bio-Atmospehric Interactions
  • Climate Assessment and Impacts
  • Human Dimensions

Doctorate of Philosophy in Natural Resource Sciences
including specializations in

  • Bio-Atmospehric Interactions
  • Climate Assessment and Impacts
  • Human Dimensions