Agates Lexicon

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ID Agate
1481Kalahari Blue agate?, jasper?, Kalahari Desert, South Africa, ...clear blue. Hocking (1975, p. 50, 51) described and illustrated a blue chalcedony found in the Natal Drakensberg and suggested the term chalecdony is reserved for this material in South Africa. Holds its blue color..., adv., Ryan's Rock Shop, Lapidary Journal, v. 19, no. 10, p. 1175.
1482Kalmuck Agate, synonym of cachalong, according to Shipley (1971, p. 108) and Frazier and Frazier (1988, p. 73). Some earlier workers such as Heddle (1901, p. 63) do not recognize the term. The name is possibly derived from the Kalmyk, a tribe of Mongol descent who inhabit parts of central Asia. See Cachalong.
1483Kamloops Petrified Forest, see Dake (1943, p. 50).
1484Kansas Dendritic Opal, grayish yellow to moderate yellow dendritic opal from siltstones and claystones in the Ogallala Group of Miocene/Pliocene Age, western Kansas, eastern Colorado, Wyoming, western Nebraska, adv., Bishop's Agate Shop, The Mineralogist, v. 9, no. 11, p. 434. Similar material is recorded by Pabian (1971, p. 64) as an in place opal occurrence in Nebraska.
1485Kansas Moss, Kansas, black dendritic patterns in white to yellow-brown opaline matrix. Similar material is found throughout the outcrop belt of the Ogallala Formation of Pliocene age in Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming.
1486Kansas Moss Agate, term used by Carpenter (1963, p. 117) refers to Kansas Moss as dendritic material collected from the Ogallala Formation of Pliocene Age in Trego County. This is probably the same material as Kansas Dendritic Opal.
1487Katy Mountain Moss Agate, California?, no further information, Gordon's, The Mineralogist, v. 15, no. 11, p. 607. This may be a misspelling of Cady Mountains as the term Katy Mountain(s), California, does not appear in Geographic Names Information System.
1488Keatite, a microcrystalline silica phase with a fibrous texture. It is not known to occur in nature but it has been formulated in laboratory studies. See Martin and Roller (1990, p. 462-466).
1489Keegan Ranch Agate, Oregon, no description, name is used in U.S. Bureau of Mines directory of gemstone producers (Austin and Copeland, 1995, p. 40). Note on Keegan, Keegenite, Kegan. These spellings may all be variants of the same material and the orthography has not yet been established.
1490Keegenite Jasper, no locality, no description, adv., Prof's Rock Shop, Lapidary Journal, v. 32, no. 4, p. 891.
1491Kegan Ranch Plume Agate, central Oregon, generally white plumes. See Sinkankas, 1976, p. 235.
1492Kel-Baker Road (nodules, geodes), in an area about 2 miles west of the intersection of T. 6 N., and T. 7 N. and R. 13 E. and R. 14 E., or approximately 115o 35' W 34o 38' N, San Bernardino Counties, California, Cadiz and Van Winkle Wash Quadrangles, U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 minute series (topographic), and a second area at about 115o 37' 30" W and 34o 34' N., San Bernardino County, California, Amboy and Cadiz Quadrangles. U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 minute series (Topographic). Mitchell (1986, p. 42).
1493Kenai Beach Agates, Alaska, banded, fortification, and eye agates from beaches along the Kenai Peninsula (Schoonover, 1964, p. 164).
1494Kenai Peninsula Agate, for Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, term used by Nieman (1966, p. 350-351) and material includes mossy, plume, and banded thunder eggs and amygdaloidal agates from beach deposits.
1495Kennedy Ranch (thunder) egg, Synonym of Priday Ranch. Priday has priority as the name has been in use since Dake=s early publications of the 1930's.
1496Kennedy Ranch Thunder Eggs, Oregon, no description, adv., Prof's Rock Shop, Lapidary Journal, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1194. May be a synonym of Priday Blue Bed thunder eggs but there are several producing beds at that site?
1497Kentucky Agate, Kentucky, and yellow agate from marine limestones, described by Johnson (1976, p. 1728-1730). See also McMackin (1979a, p. 928-932). Dale Burton (personal communication, 1998) has suggested that these agates originated in the Cowbell Siltstone and Renfro Dolomite members of the Borden formation of early Mississippian age. Sedimentologic history of these agates is covered in Fisher (1977, p. 864-869, 1981, p. 125-127) and Chowns and Elkins (1974, p. 885-903). Settles (1981, p. 128, 129) illustrated several examples.
1498Keokuk Geodes, usually quartz lined geodes from the Keokuk Formation of Mississippian (Kinderhookian) age of Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Illinois. These frequently have a shell of banded gray to yellow chalcedony.
1499Kern Beds, see Fairburn Agate.
1500Keswick Agate, for Keswick, 41o 27' 09" N and 92o 14' 21" W, Keokuk County, Iowa. Generally agate filled or lined cavities in Limestones of Warsaw? Formation of Mississippian age. Usually light gray to brownish-gray banded agate; some weathered materials may be brilliant red. See Burry (1979, p. 1312-1324).
1501Kewanee, sub-variety of Lake Superior Agate, usually small pebbles, found on South Shore of Lake Superior, Wisconsin, Michigan, adv., The Gem Exchange,Hobbies, v. 44, no. 9, p. 112; The Mineralogist, v. 7, no. 10, p. 387.
1502Keewenaw Agate, Term used by Green (1939, p. 113, 114) for agates found along Lake Superior=s Beaches (=Lake Superior Agate); adv., Keewenaw Agate Shop, Earth Science Digest, v. 1, no. 5, p. 27; ...1" and 2" gem size beach agates, adv., Keewenaw Agate Shop, Lapidary Journal, v. 2, no. 3, p. 151. See also Luoma (1948, 1949).
1503Keweenaw Jasper, Michigan, light green and brown, adv., Keweenaw Agate Shop, Earth Science, v. 3, no. 1, p. 69.
1504Keweenaw Point, Agate producing area on the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, referred to in a Web Page, Hunting Agate in the Keweenaw at: .
1505Killellan Hill, Argyll, Scotland, historic locality that produced pink agates from 5 miles South of Campbeltown (Heddle, 1901, p. 76). Rodgers (1975, p. 51) suggested that these agates originated in lavas of the Old Red Sandstone of Devonian Age and were reworked at least twice into sediments of younger ages. The site is also mentioned by Macpherson (1989, p. 19).
1506Kimbride, Utah, collecting site mentioned by Hunter (1976, p. 1084, 1089).
1507Kindradite, see Kinradite.
1508Kinnoull Hill, Perthshire, Scotland, historic locality mentioned in Cockburn (1869, p. 197) and Heddle (1901, p. 76) who commented: AFormerly at Kinnoull Hill, suggesting that Heddle may have considered the site depleted. The agates originated in lavas of the Old Red Sandstone of Early Devonian Age (Fallick et al, 1985, p. 672-674). The site is mentioned by Rodgers (1975, p. 87) and Macpherson (1989, p. 19, 32, 33, figs. 69-71) who suggested the site had yielded some agates as late as 1977.
1509Kingston Jasper, Georgia, no description, adv., Aubrey Bottoms, Lapidary Journal, v. 17, no. 1, p. 64. Probably named for Kingston, 34o 14' 13" N and 084o 56' 39" W, Bartow County, Georgia.
1510Kinradite, California, Oregon, (synonym: orbicular jasper), for J. J. Kinrade, operator of lapidary shop in Montgomery Building, San Francisco, California, from 1906 to about 1936. Kinrade developed early lapidary equipment. Anon, 1937. Old Collection Sold. The Mineralogist, v. 5, no. 4, p. 24. Originally a local trade name for jasper containing colorless to nearly colorless quartz, Shipley, 1971. Dictionary of Gems and Gemology, p. 109. Ulke, 1940, called it a spotted, porphyritic jasper. Symons (1940, p. 39-44) suggested the material originated in the Franciscan and Monterey Formations. The name kinradite was used as early as 1922 (Merrill, Moodey, and Wherry, p.122); the U. S. National Museum catalogue lists gems with catalogue numbers 1534 (12 stones) and 1535 (1 stone), cut from specimen no. 87422. This name may be used for similar material from numerous locality and now has little if any implication as to source. Sperisen (1938, p. 49) stated that the material is found in the Franciscan Series of Jurassic age in the California sources.
1511Kintyre---Argyll, Scotland, historic locality with agates from lavas in old Red Sandstone of Early Devonian Age. Heddle (1901, p. 76) reported agates from Killellan Hill and loose on the shores of Macrihanish. Rodgers (1975, p. 84, 85) listed additional sites at Carskey Bay and Southend.
1512Klamath Agate, for Klamath Falls, Oregon, fortification agate, adv., Klamath Agate Shop, The Mineralogist, v. 14, no. 5, p. 247.
1513Kofa Agate Nodules, California, no description, probably named for Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, adv., Foster's, Lapidary Journal, v. 13, no. 6, p. 815.
1514Kofa Fire Agate, for Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, localities are at about 114o 10'W, 33o 7' 30" N, at McPherson Wash, Arch Tank Quadrangle, Yuma County, Arizona.
1515Ko Hatu Tapu Moana, Maori for "Paua" shell, a material that is sometimes sold under the name of Marine Opal, anon., 1983, p. 73 Lapidary Journal. It is probably not an agate.
1516Korallenachat, (German), coral agate, term used by Hintze (1915, p. 1472). Frazier and Frazier (1988, p. 73) used a hyphenated spelling Korallen-Achat.
1517Kramer Hills, California, locality for petrified palm wood and jasper, adv., Christie Conway, The Mineralogist, v. 17, no. 10, p. 473. For Kramer Hills, in about secs. 2, 3, 10, 11, T. 9 N., R. 6 W., San Bernardino County, California, Kramer Hills Quadrangle, U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 minute series (topographic). Abandoned town site of Kramer Hills is in NW 1/4, sec. 36, T. 10 N., R. 6 W., San Bernardino County. The Geographic Information System shows Kramer Hills extends from 34o 54' 58" N and 117o 31' 22" W to 34o 55' 15" N and 117o 28' 04" W, San Barnardino County, California, Kramer Junction and Kramer Hills Quadrangles. Perry (1961, p. 312) suggested this area was an important source of plume agates and moss agates.
1518Kreisachat, (German), a term that is used by Hintze (1915, p. 1472) and Gaertner (1971, p. 22, 23). Gaertner suggested it was synonymous with Augenachat (eye agate) but the specimens he has illustrated appear to be sections thru stalactitic agates. Although Hintze has no illustrations, the term appears to translate more closely to circle agate.
1519Kugel Jaspis, (German) ball jasper, term used by Hintze (1915, p. 1476) and illustrated by Gaertner (1971, p. 42).
1520Kuiu Blue (Agate) Farragut Bay area, Alaska. Pronounced: Q U; generally a dark blue agate that approaches lapis lazuli shades. Buddington and Chapin (1929, p. 44?) described the section in south-eastern Alsaka and showed numerous basalt/andesite flows with associated volcanics ranging in age from Silurian through Quaternary. Extensive basaltic and rhyolitic deposits of Eocene age crop out Kuiu Island and these are probably the agate producing units, though Hungerford (1947) stated that most of the Kuiu agates occurred as orphans. See Hungerford, E. S., 1947, A rockhound in Alaska, The Mineralogist, v. 15, no. 3, p. 115-116.
1521Kujulik Bay (Wood), Alaska, collecting area listed by Waskey (1960, p. 16, 18) as being situated at 56o 30' N and 158o W and which extends from 56o 36' 54" N to 56o 33' 37" N and 157o 51' 31" W to 158o 03' 16" W, Dillingham County Alaska, Sutwick Island C-6 and Chignik Quadrangles, U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 Minute Series (Topographic).
1522Kyje, Bohemia, Gotze, Plotze, Fuchs and Habermann (1999, p. 152, 153) suggested that agates from this site formed in a rhyolite and examined them by electron paramagnetic resonance, cathodoluminescence and trace element content.

About the Agate Lexicon

The Agate Lexicon and glossary of amorphous and cryptocrystalline silica gems have been designed to be used in conjunction with the Agate Bibliography, which was compiled to be used by researchers, hobbyists, historians, lapidaries and other individuals which have an interest in these stones. Numerous localities are listed here but this does not imply that the sites are available for collectors or collecting. Many of the sites are historic, depleted, are on private property or are protected by legal leases or claims and some are now on protected sites such as parks, nature preserves, or historic areas. Wherever possible, stratigraphic details are listed, but the user must always refer back to the original citations. Map information has been derived from 7.5' x 7.5' topographic maps issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and latitude and longitude have been derived mostly from Geographic Names Information System of the USGS.

Authors should not cite the Agate Bibliography or Agate Lexicon as a source in their published or unpublished works but should cite only those publications listed therein.

Named varieties of agates, jaspers, etc., have created special problems for both scientific researchers and historians. We have recognized at least two different usages of names. Some names appear to have geologic / historic validity, as they were described along with the lithology / geography of a region. Some names were introduced simply as trade names to boost sales of gem dealers. In the former case, the name will be followed by appropriate literary citation as to who first used the name and in what context. In the latter case, an advertisement (abbreviated adv.) is the first published record or public notice. We have tried to find the earliest citation in either case and the user should keep in mind that older citations unknown to us may exist. Advertisements are not cited to generate business but to simply give a historic source; many of the firms appearing in the citations are indeed no longer in existence.

Cited materials are generally only from accessible sources such as professional journals, magazines, hobbyist journals, open file reports of government agencies, newspapers, etc. Bulletins issued by local clubs and societies are generally not cited with the exception of those special publications that were actually made for public distribution.

Wherever possible, imagery of one or more specimens of named agate varieties, structures, patterns, etc. are provided. Images have been provided by several sources and are not to be utilized in other pages without the consent of the image owner.