Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard

  • Contact Information
  • My Story
  • Publications
  • Background
  • Interests
  • Advising
  • Courses Taught

Contact Information

TitleEnvironmental Archaeologist
Faculty RankResearch Professor
Address719 South Hardin Hall
3310 Holdrege Street
Lincoln NE

East Campus
  • office: 402-875-2863
  • fax: 402-472-4915
VitaeDownload file


Contact Preference


Office Hours

M, R 2:00 - 5:00 PM HARH 32

My Story


I am Karl Reinhard, professor in forensic science in School of Natural Resources. I am also a fulbright commission senior specialist in botanical archaeology and served as a "flbrighter" three times: Brazil 2001, Brazil 2005, and Peru 2007. I have been a member of the UNL staff since 1989. I served in the Department of Anthropology from 1989 to 1999 before joining the School of Natural Resources in 2000.

My career has had many dimensions. In my early years, I was a field archaeologist in the southwest. My work with Linda Gregonis on Hohokam archaeology. In the past few years, I have returned to those roots, especially Ancestral Pueblo archaeology. Links to recent articles can be found in the publications tab of this site. In the next years, I will explore the cause of the modern diabetes epidemic among southwestern USA tribes from this archaeological perspective. With regard to diabetes, I have collected dietary data for the U.S. Southwest that spans a 10,000-year period. These data, when interpreted in context of new nutritional data that have been collected by other researchers, provide important insight into the relationship of plant use to cultural development and its effect on the evolution of human metabolism.

The main aim of my career between 1985 and 2005 was to find explanations for modern patterns of disease in the archaeological and historic record. I developed a new area of specialization, called archaeoparasitology. This is an approach to understanding the evolution of parasitic disease. It is also the topic of a course I developed for UNL students. Based on a Fulbright teaching-research award to Brazil in 2001, I helped edit a volume of papers on this topic.

I have also done research in Andean paleoethnobotany, which is the use of plants by ancient peoples. I began this research in 1988 with Chinchorro (an ancient tribe of Chilean Indians) mummy intestinal contents. The research was expanded in 1990, when I participated in NSF-funded excavation and autopsy of more than 100 mummies from the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. My analysis of several hundred samples resulted in new methods for identification of Andean foods, and in the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic reconstruction of diet for the valley. Key results of the study defined the origins of maize agriculture, and subsistence specializations in different ecological zones of the valley. This work was augmented in 1993 when I and my colleagues completed trace elemental analysis of mummies. In 1996, I carried out ethnobotanical studies in Huancayo, Peru, and pioneered a new method of dietary analysis of dental calculus study of a formative skeletal series from Ilo, Peru. In 1997-1998, with funding from the Universidad de Tarapaca, Chile, I and my students traced the impact of the Inca Empire expansion on diet in ancient Chile. The most recent paper on that work can be found at http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008069.

At one point, Sara LeRoy-Toren (Lincoln High School Science Focus Program) and I studied plant anatomy microstructure to identify the diet of Chinchorro people. We found evidence that the oldest cultures in the Atacama Desert subsisted on wetland species of plants. Previously, archaeologists thought that the cultures were completely dependent on marine animals: fish, shellfish and sea lions. The discovery of wetland plants was a surprise, since wetlands in the Atacama Desert had not been recognized. At the end of 2007, Chilean colleagues and I found a remote part of a small Atacama river valley that still had refugia of three of the four wetland types evidenced in the mummies. Cattail, horsetail, and sedges were growing abundantly. All of us realized then that we had overlooked these plant foods, largely because most of the wetlands disappeared under cultivation at the origin of agriculture in the region. Since then, we also looked at the fish remains and fish tapeworm prevalence. Some cemeteries are almost free of infection while others have a 33% prevalence of infection. What we found is that El Nino events alter the variety of fish available to coastal fisherman, even today, and this made and makes people more susceptible to infection today.

Bernardo Arriaza and Karl Reinhard exploring the pollen production of cattails in the Atacama Desert, Chile
Bernardo Arriaza and Karl Reinhard exploring the pollen production of cattails in the Atacama Desert, Chile

Since 2008, when I joined the UNL forensic science degree program, my responsibilities shifted from research to teaching. Since 1989, I served the state of Nebraska as a forensic scientist. Now, I am taking the lessons I learned at crime scenes and in the morgue to the classroom. I am teaching courses in the analysis of pollen and human remains in forensic settings.

In addition, I am spearheading the efforts to develop forensic science degree programs in other countries. As a result of this work, the UNL forensic science degree program has a partner with the Lagos State University College of Medicine's forensic science program in Nigeria. The forensic science degree program is in the final stages of developing a similar cooperative program with the Brazilian National School of Public Health at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro. These joint ventures will provide valuable international experience for UNL forensic science students.

Karl Reinhard and colleaugues

Selected Publications

Obafunwa, J., Reinhard, K. (2022). Diagnosing Neurocysticercosis in Skeletonized Human Remains of Forensic Importance. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.Online
Reinhard, K., Barbosa, A. (2022). Natural Environment: Protocol to Recover Pollen Grains on Bodies. Brazilian Journal of Criminalistics. Online
Reinhard, K. (2021). Analysis of Mummy Digestive Tract Contents with Examples of Relevance to Diet, Health, and Hospice.
Reinhard, K. (2021). Dietary Stress in Combat: Coprolite Analysis of a Korean War Marine Killed in Action. Springer.
Reinhard, K., Araujo, A. (2021). MUMMIES, PARASITES, AND PATHOECOLOGY. Handbook of Mummy Studies: New Frontiers in Scientific and Cultural Perspectives. Springer.
Reinhard, K., Fujita H, Shin DH (2021). 古寄生虫学 (Archaeoparasitology). ーナル (Journal of Archaeology, Japan).
Reinhard, K., Rollins, Amanda (2021). Molecular identification of parasites in an intestinal coprolite from a mummified religious dignitary of the Piraino Mother Church crypt, Sicily. Journal of Archaeological Science: ReportsOnline
Seo M,, Reinhard, K. (2021). Archaeoparasitology of Korean Mummies. Springer.
Wibowo, Leblanc Stephen, Reinhard, K., Kostec Alex (2021). Reconstruction of ancient microbial genomes from the human gut. Nature 594:234–239. Nature.Online
Camacho, M., Reinhard, K. 2019. Confusing a pollen grain with a parasite egg: an appraisal of “Paleoparasitological evidence of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection in a female adolescent residing in ancient Tehran”. Korean Journal of Parasitology.Online
Camacho, M., Reinhard, K. 2019. Pinworm infection in Salmon Ruins and Aztec Ruins: relation to Pueblo III regional violence. Korean Journal of Parasitology. 57(6): 627-633.Online
Camacho, M., Reinhard, K. 2019. Pinworm research in the Southwest USA: five decades of methodological and theoretical development and the epidemiological approach. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 12(63).Online
M. B., Cordova, B., Perri, A., Wibowo, M. C., Reinhard, K., Tung Jada Ko, W., Kagone, T. S. 2019. CoproID predicts the source of coprolites and paleofeces using microbiome composition and host DNA content. BioRxiv preprint.Online
Pucu de Araujo, E., Reinhard, K., Russ, J. 2019. Gut Microbiome and Diet: What Can Coprolites Tell Us? Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences.
Reinhard, K., Camacho, M. 2019. "Parasitology," in Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, ed. Jane Buikstra (Tempe: Arizona State University),.pp. 479-562.
Reinhard, K., Shin, D. H., Chai, J. Y., Seo, M. 2019. Preface for special issue on archaeoparasitology: a global perspective on ancient parasites and current research projects. Korean Journal of Parasitology. 57(6): 565-566.Online
Tett, A., Rattei, T., Huang, K. D., Reinhard, K., Amuasi, J. 2019. The Prevotella copri complex comprises four distinct clades that are underrepresented in Westernised populations. Cell Host & Microbe. 26(5): 666-679.Online
Camacho, M., Iniguez, A., Reinhard, K. (2018). Taphonomic considerations of pinworm preservation. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports.
Morrow, J., Reinhard, K. (2018). The Paleoepidemiology of Enterobius vermicularis (Nemata: Oxyuridae) among the Loma San Gabriel at La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800CE), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. Comparative Parasitology, 102(4).
Obafunwa, j., Hammerl, E., reinhard, k. (2018). Autologous Bone Flap Resorption Years After Subtemporal Craniotomy. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology.Online
Obaufunwa, J., Hammerl, E., Reinhard, K. 2018. "The Benefits of a Cooperative Approach: Case Studies from Lancaster County, Nebraska," in Forensic Archaeology - Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. Moran, K., Gold, C. (Moran KS: Springer),. pp. 247-264.
Paseka, R., Reinhard, K., Heitman, C. (2018). New evidence of ancient parasitism among Late Archaic and Ancestral Puebloan residents of Chaco Canyon. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, 18:51–58, 18, 51–58.Online
Reinhard, K., Bray, A., Leon, H., Kelly, L., Annie, L., D., P.-M. (2018). Pollen Evidence of Medicine from an Embalming Jar Associated with Vittoria della Rovere, Florence, ItalyK. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Reinhard, K., Camacho, M. (2018). Recovering Parasites from Mummies and Coprolites: Establishing an Epidemiological Approach. Parasites and Vectors.
Reinhard, K., Lynch, K. B., Larsen, A., Adams, B., Higley, L., do Amaral, Marina Milanello, Russ, J., Zhou, Y., Lippi, D., Morrow, J., Piombino-Mascali, D. (2018). Pollen evidence of medicine from an embalming jar associated with Vittoria della Rovere, FlOnline
Reinhard, K., Shin, D. H., Slepchenko, S. (2018). Archaeoparasitology. Springer.
Sergey, S., Reinhard, K. (2018). Paleoparasitology and Pathoecology in Russia: Investigations and Perspectives. Paleoparasitology and Pathoecology in Russia: Investigations and Perspectives, 22, 39–44.Online
Taylor, L., Morrow, J., Peck, L., Elowsky, C., Harvey, M., Owens, L., Eeckhout, P., Reinhard, K. (2018). Pseudoscorpions of the family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionida) recovered from burial sediments at Pachacamac (500-1,500CE), Perú. Journal o
Verostick, K., Reinhard, K., Teixeira-Santos, I., Bryant, V. (2018). The Skiles Mummy: Care of a Debilitated Hunter-gatherer Evidenced by Coprolite Studies and Stable Isotopic Analysis of Hair. International Journal of Paleoppathology.Online
Morrow, J., Reinhard, K. (2017). The Paleoepidemiology of Enterobius vermicularis (Nemata: Oxyuridae) among the Loma San Gabriel at La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800CE), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. Comparative Parasitology, 102(4).Online
Reinhard, K. (2017). Reestablishing rigor in archaeological parasitology. International Journal of Paleopathology, 19, 124-134.Online
Reinhard, K., Milanello do Amaral, M., Wall, N. (2017). Palynological Investigation of Mummified Human Remains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63(1), 244-250.Online
Boyadjian, H. C., Reinhard, K. 2016. Dieta no Sambaqui Jabuticabeira-II (Sc): Consumo de Plantas Revelado por Microvestígios Provenientes de Cálculo Dentário (Diet At Jabuticabeira II (Sc): Plant Foods Revealed By Microremains From Dental Calculus). CaderOnline
Higley, L., Reinhard, K., Brosius T. R., Carter, D. 2016. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis. J Forensic Sci. 61:1356-1358.Online
Morrow, J., K. Reinhard. 2016. Archaeoentomological and archaeoacarological investigations of embalming jar contents from the San Lorenzo Basilica in Florence, Italy. J Archaeol Sci Reports, 10, 166–171.Online
Morrow, J., Newby, J., Piombino-Mascali, D., Reinhard, K. 2016. Taphonomic considerations for the analysis of parasites in archaeological materials. International Journal of Paleopathology. 13:56–64.Online
Morrow, J.J., Reinhard, K. 2016. Assessing the Archaeoparasitological Potential of Quids As a Source Material for Immunodiagnostic Analyses. Korean J Parasitol. 54:605-616.Online
Reinhard, K., and A. Araujo. 2016. Prehistoric Pathoecology as Represented by Parasites of a Mummy from the Peruaçu Valley, Brazil. Korean J Parasitol 54(5):585-590.Online
Reinhard, K., Araujo, A., Morrow, J.J. 2016. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Enterobius vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in the Prehistoric Americas. Korean J Parasitol. 54:591-603.Online
Reinhard, K., Morrow, J. 2016. Dental archaeoparasitology: Rigorous analysis. BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL. 220:612.Online
Reinhard, K., Morrow, J.J. 2016. Cryptosporidium parvum Among Coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600-800 CE), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. J. Parasitology. 102:429-35.Online
Hammerl, E. E., Reinhard, K., Baier, M. A. (2015). Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids. PLoS One. 10(7):e0133710. doi:Online
J.J. Morrow, D.A. Baldwin, L. Higley, D. Piombino-Mascali, and K.J. Reinhard. 2015. Curatorial Implications of Ophyra capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) Puparia Recovered from the Body of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages)Online
Reinhard, K., Araujo, A. (2015). Palaeoparasitology – Human Parasites in Ancient Material. dvances in Parasitology, 90, 349–387Online
J.J. Morrow, A.S. Larsen, D. Piombino-Mascali, R. Jankauskas, J. Kozakaite, A. Araujo, and K.J. Reinhard. 2014. Taphonomic considerations of a whipworm infection in a mummy from the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit, Vilnius, Lithuania. The InternationaOnline
Reinhard, K. J., Araujo, A. (2014). Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities and the Pathoecology of Chagas Disease in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands. Journal of Archaeological Science. 53, 227–234.Online
S.E. Racz, E. Pucu de Araujo, E. Jensen, C. Mostek, J.J. Morrow, M.L. Van Hove, R. Bianucci, D. Willems, F. Heller, A. Araujo, and K.J. Reinhard. 2014. Parasitology in an archaeological context: Analysis of medieval burials in Nivelles, Belgium. The JournOnline
Seo, M., Araujo, A., Reinhard, K., Chai, Y. J., Shin, D. H. (2014). Paleoparasitological Studies on Mummies of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 52, 1-8.Online
Williams, S., Hubbard, S., Chaves, S., Reinhard, K. (2014). Establishing Tobacco Origin from Pollen Identification: An Approach to Resolving the Debate. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59: 1642-1649.Online
Arriaza, B., Reinhard, K., Arriaza, B. (2013). On head lice and social intercourse in early Andean coastal populations. International Journal of Paleopathology, 3, 257–268.Online
Celeste, G., Reinhard, K., Brian, B., J, C. (2013). Tracking Shifts in Coca Use in the Moche Valley: Analysis of Oral Health Indicators and Dental Calculus Microfossils. Ñawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology 33:193-214.,
Cleeland,LM, Mason R, Tito RY, Reinhard K, Lewis CM (2013) Clarifying Prehistoric Parasitism from a Complementary Morphological and Molecular Approach. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:3060-3066.Online
Haas, J., Creamer, W., Huaman, L., Goldstein, D., Reinhard, K., Vergel, C., Ruiz A (2013) Evidence for Maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000-1800 CE) in the Norte Chico region of Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(13):4945-4949Online
J.J. Morrow, D. Piombino-Mascali, D. Lippi, and K.J. Reinhard. 2013. Archaeoparasitological analysis of viscera from the Medici Family (Saint Lorenzo Basilica, Florence, Italy). Medicea. (In Press).
Piombino-Mascali D, Zink AR, Reinhard KJ, Lein M, Panzer S, Aufderheide AC, Rachid R, De Souza W, Araujo A, Chaves SAM, Teixeira-Santos I, Dutra J, (2013) Dietary Analysis of Piraino 1, Sicily, Italy: the Role of Archaeopalynology in Forensic Science. JoOnline
Reinhard K, Ferreira LF, Bouchet F, Sianto L, Dutra JMF, Iniguez A., Leles D, Le Bailly M, Fugassa M, Pucu E, Araujo A (2013). Food, parasites, and epidemiological transitions: a broad perspective. International Journal of Paleopathology. 3: 150-157.Online
Reinhard, K. (2013). Applying forensic anthropological data in homicide investigation to the depravity standard. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 20, 27–39.Online
Searcey N, Reinhard KJ, Gardner SL, Egarter-Vigl E, Maixner F, Piombino-Mascali D, Zink A, Van Der Sanden W, Bianucci R (2013) Parasitism of the Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis evidenced in a Roman period bog mummy. International Journal of Paleopathology. Online
Searcey, N., Reinhard, K., Gardner, S. L., Egarter-Vigl, E., Maixner, F., Piombino-Mascali, D., Zink, A., Van Der Sanden, W., Bianucci, R. (2013). Parasitism of the Zweeloo Woman Bog Body. International Journal of Paleopathology, 3, 224–228.
Arriaza, B., Standen, V., Núñez, H., Reinhard, K. (2012). Study of archaeological nits/eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis by scanning electron microscopy. Micron.Online
Jimenez FA, Gardner SL, Araujo A, Fugassa M, Brooks RH, Racz E, Reinhard KJ (2012) Zoonotic and Human Parasites of Inhabitants of Cueva de Los Muertos Chiquitos, Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 98:304-309.Online
Leles D, Gardner S, Reinhard K, Iniguez A, Araujo A (2012) Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species? Parasites & Vectors 5:42.
Reinhard KJ, Johnson KL, LeRoy-Toren S, Wieseman K, Teixeira-Santos I, Vieira M (2012) Understanding the Pathoecological Relationship between Ancient Diet and Modern Diabetes through Coprolite Analysis: A Case Example from Antelope Cave, Mojave County, AOnline
Reinhard, K., Texeira-Santos, I. (2012). Eating lizards: a millenary habit evidenced by Paleoparasitology. BioMed Central Research Notes.Online
Tito, R. Y., Kights, D., Mecal, J., Obregon-Tito, A. J., Cleeland, L., Fares, N., Roe, B., Reinhard, K., Sobolik, K., Aufderheide, A., Foster, M., Spicer, P., Knight, R., Lewis, C. M. (2012). Insights from Characterizing Extinct Human Gut Microbiomes. PLoOnline
Eggers S, Parks M, Grupe G, Reinhard KJ (2011) Paleoamerican Diet, Migration and Morphology in Brazil: Archaeological Complexity of the Earliest Americans. PLoS ONE 6(9): e23962.Online
Fugassa MH, Reinhard KJ, Johnson KL, Vieira M, Araujo A (2011) Parasitism of prehistoric humans and companion animals from Antelope Cave Mojave County, Arizona. Journal of Parasitology 97: 862-867.Online
Kumm K, Reinhard KJ, Araujo A, Piombino-Mascali D (2011) The Parasitology of the Piraino 1 Mummy, Sicily, Italy. Anthropologie: International Journal of the Science of Man 48:177-184.
Arriaza BT, Reinhard KJ, Araujo AG, Orellana NC, Standen VG (2010) Possible Influence of ENSO Phenomenon on the Pathoecology of Diphyllobothriasis and Anisakiasis in ancient Chinchorro Populations. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 105: 66-72.Online
Kucera M, Panny D, Boyadjian CH, Reinhard K, Eggers S (2010) Efficient But Destructive: A Test Of The Dental Wash Technique Using Secondary Electron Microscopy. Journal of Archaeological Science (epub 26 Sept, 2010)Online
Leles D, Reinhard KJ, Fugassa M, Ferreira LF, Iniguez AM, Araujo A (2010) A parasitological paradox: Why is ascarid infection so rare in the prehistoric Americas? Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1510-1520.Online
Wesolowski V, de Souza SMM, Reinhard KJ, Ceccantini G (2010) Evaluating Microfossil Content of Dental Calculus from Brazilian Sambaquis. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1326-1338.Online
Araujo A, Jansen AM, Reinhard K, Ferreira LF (2009) Paleoparasitology of Chagas disease: A review. Mem Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 104: 9-16.Online
Sianto L, Chame M, Silva CSP, Goncalves MLC, Reinhard K, Fugassa M, Araujo A (2009) Animal Helminths in Human Archaeological Remains: A Review Of Zoonoses in the Past. Revista do Instituto de Medina Tropical de Sao Paulo 51:119-130.Online
Vinton SD, Perry L, Reinhard KJ, Santoro CM, Teixeira-Santos I (2009) Impact of Empire Expansion on Household Diet: the Inka in Northern Chile's Atacama Desert. PLoS ONE 4: e8069.Online
Araujo A, Reinhard KJ, Ferreira LF, Gardner SL (2008) Parasites: probes for evidence of prehistoric human migrations. Trends in Parasitology 24: 112-115.Online
Eggers S, Petronilho CC, Brandt K, Jerico-Daminello C, Filippini J, Reinhard KJ (2008) How does a riverine setting affect the lifestyle of shellmound builders in Brazil? HOMO-Journal of Comparative Human Biology.Online
Fugassa M, Sardella N, Taglioretti V, Reinhard K, Araujo A (2008) Eimeriid Oocysts From Archaeological Samples in Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Parasitology 94:1418-1420.Online
Johnson KL, Reinhard KJ, Sianto L, Araujo A, Gardner SL, Janovy Jr. J (2008) A tick from a prehistoric Arizona coprolite. Journal of Parasitology 94: 296-298.Online
Meier DK, Reinhard KJ, Carter DO, Brooks DW (2008) Simulations with elaborated worked example modeling: beneficial effects on schema acquisition. Journal of Science Education and Technology 17:262-273.Online
Reinhard KJ (2008) Parasite Pathoecology of Chacoan Great Houses: The Healthiest and Wormiest Ancestral Puebloans. Northern Prodigies Salmon, Aztec, and the Ascendancy of the Middle San Juan Region after AD 1100. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Online
Reinhard KJ, Araujo A, Sianto L, Costello JG, Swope K. (2008) Chinese liver flukes in latrine sediments from Wong Nim's property, San Bernardino, California: Archaeoparasitology of the Caltrans District Headquarters. Journal of Parasitology 94:300-303.Online
Reinhard KJ, Bryant VM (2008) Pathoecology and the Future of Coprolite Studies. Reanalysis and Reinterpretation in Southwestern Bioarchaeology. Arizona State University Press: Tempe, 199-216.Online
Reinhard KJ, Chaves SAM, Iniguez AM (2008) Evaluating chloroplast DNA in prehistoric Texas coprolites: medicinal, dietary, or ambient ancient DNA? Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 1748-1755.Online
Tito RY, Macmil S, Wiley G, Najar F, Cleeland L, Qu C, Wang P, Romagne F, Leonard S, Ruiz AJ, Reinhard K, Roe BA, Lewis CM Jr. (2008) Phylotyping and functional analysis of two ancient human microbiomes. PLoS ONE 3(11):e3703. Epub 2008 Nov 11.Online
Iniguez, A.M., Araujo A., Vicente, A.C.P., Ferreira, L.F., Reinhard, K.J. 2003. Enterobius vermicularis: Specific Detection by Amplification of an Internal Region of 5S Ribosomal RNA Intergenic Spacer and Trans-splicing Leader RNA Analysis. Experimental P
Rick, F., Rocha, G.C., Dittmar, K., Coimbra, Jr. C.E.A., Reinhard, K., Bouchet, F., Ferreira, L.F., and Araujo, A. 2003. Crab louse infestation in pre-Columbian America. Journal of Parasitology. 88:1266-1277.Online
Carvalho Goncalves, M.J., Araujo, A., Duarte, R., Pereira da Silva, J., Reinhard, K., Bouchet, F., Ferreira, L.F. 2002. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in coprolites using a commercially available enzyme innumoassay. The Transactions of the Royal
Reinhard, K.J., Araujo, A., Ferreira, L.F., Coimbra, C. 2001. American hookworm antiquity. Medical Anthropology. 20:96-101.Online
Reinhard, K.J., de Souza, S.M.F., Rodrigues, C.D., Kimmerle, E., Dorsey-Vinton, S. 2001. Microfossils in Dental Calculus: A New Perspective on Diet and Dental Disease. Human Remains: Conservation, Retrieval, and Analysis. 113-118.
Hugot, J.P., Reinhard, K.J., Gardner, S.L., and Morand, S. 1999. Human enterobiasis in evolution: origin, specificity and transmission. Parasite. 6:201-208.Online
Myers, J., Okoye, I., Kimmerle, E., and Reinhard, K.J. 1999. Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging in post-mortem examinations: elucidation and identification of cranial and facial fractures in victims of homicide utilizing 3-D computerized imaging reconstructi
Okoye, M., Kimmerle, E., and Reinhard, K.J. 1999. An analysis and report of custodial deaths in Nebraska, USA. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine. 6:77-84 .
Danielson, D.R., and K.J. Reinhard 1998. Human dental microwear caused by calcium oxalate phytoliths in prehistoric diet of the lower Pecos region, Texas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 107:297-304.Online
Reinhard, K., Camacho, M. (in press). Parasitology. Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains (pp. 35). Cambridge MA: Elsevier Inc. (S&T Books and Cell Press).



DegreeMajorInstitutionYear Awarded
Doctorate of PhilosophyTexas A & M University1988
Master of ScienceUniversity of Northern Arizona1985
Bachelor of ArtsUniversity of Arizona1977





TitleAwarded byYear Awarded
Eve Cockburn Mentorship AwardPaleopathology Association2016
The Prêmio Jabuti literary award in BrazilCâmara Brasileira do Livro2012
Ciencia sem FronteirasCoordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior2012
Phi Beta Delta Honor Society for International ScholarsUNL International Studies2009
Research, teaching and lab development in PerúFULBRIGHT/NFS2007
Archaeobotany/palynology classes, BrazilFULBRIGHT/CNP2005
Research and teaching in Brazil (2001-2002)FULBRIGHT/CAPES2001


Professional Organizations

American Society of Parasitologists
Association of Stratographic Palynologists
Fulbright Academy of Science and TechnologyFounding Board Member (2006-present)
Fulbright AssociationLife Member (2007-present)




SNR Program Areas

  • Applied Ecology

Areas of Interest/Expertise

  • Relation of Ancient Diet to Modern Diabetes
  • Origin and Pathoecology of Human Parasites
  • Forensic Science
  • International Education
  • Archaeoparasitology
  • Palynology
  • Paleoethnobotany
  • Ecology
  • Humans and the Enivornment
  • Paleoclimate
  • Paleoenvironments
  • Human Geography
  • Human Dimensions of Natural Resources


Graduate Programs

Master of Applied Science

Master of Science in Natural Resource Sciences
including specializations in

  • Applied Ecology

Doctorate of Philosophy in Natural Resource Sciences
including specializations in

  • Applied Ecology

Courses Taught

Course NumberCourse TitleFall Even YearsFall Odd YearsSpring Even YearsSpring Odd YearsSummer SessionCross Listing
FORS 300Forensic TaphonomyXX
NRES 446/846Pollen Analysis for Behavioral, Biological, and Forensic ScienceXXFORS 446/846
NRES 447/847Archaeoparasitology: The Archaelogy of DiseaseXX
NRES 498 / 898Global Warming and Emerging DiseasesXX