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1053 Fairburn Agate, for Fairburn, South Dakota. Nebraska, South Dakota, Wyoming. Type locality probably Kern Ranch, about 14 miles east of Fairburn, South Dakota. Term may have been used first by Sherrill (1948, p. 713-714). Zasadil (1951, p. 14-16, 18) suggested they were named for area about 15 miles east of Fairburn, South Dakota, and that local collectors commonly call them Ribbon Agates. M. S. Shaub used the term Fairburn and referred to the Kern beds (1958, p. 394-397, 437) as did Zeitner (1957, p. 11-13). Frazier and Frazier (1988, p. 72) suggested Johnny Creek area, east of Fairburn, South Dakota, as their principal source. See also Zeitner (1959, p. 42-54), who later (1963, p. 124) stated that the original Fairburn locality is 14 miles east of Fairburn, South Dakota, on French Creek Road. This locality is in the basal conglomerates of the Chamberlain Pass Formation of Oligocene age in the type area and similar agates are found in sediments of the same age throughout their outcrop belt in Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska (Pabian, 1971, p. 54). The agates were derived from mostly marine sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian and Permian ages that were described by Condra, Reed and Scherer (1940, revised, 1950) and Harper (1960) that are exposed in the Front Range and Hartville Uplift areas of Wyoming and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Color illustration in Zeitner (1978, p. 2100-2110; 1982, p. 842-850; 1985, p. 248-253).
1054 Fairburn Badlands Picture Rock, South Dakota, long ruffles, highly colorful, probably a synonym of Prairie Agate, adv., The Wilking, Lapidary Journal, v. 5, no. 4, p. 320.
1055 Fairburnite, a richly fortified agate from Fairburn, South Dakota according to Van Leunen (1945, p. 125). This is the earliest to date published usage of Fairburn, rkp.
1056 Fairburn Ribbon Agate, South Dakota, synonym and local name for Fairburn Agate (Zasadil, 1951, p. 14-16, 18). Adv., The Wilkins, Lapidary Journal, v. 5, no. 4, p. 320.
1057 Fairhills Agate, South Dakota, term coined by Zeinter (1962a) for what is a marine sedimentary agate that has formed in limestone of the Minnelusa Formation of Pennsylvanian age. These agates are apparently part of the large variety of parent materials from a large population of marine sedimentary agates that have formed in parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota and which provided material that make up what collectors commonly call Fairburn Agates. The Fairhills Agates were originally recorded from weathered limestone in the Pringle, South Dakota, area and they often have a weathered, white, limy matrix. The agates some changes due to diagenesis and weathering and are in an intermediate state between being a relatively unaltered marine sedimentary agate and a highly altered orphan. For further reading, see: : Clark, R., 1998. South Dakota=s Fairburn Agate. Photography by Mary Jane Clark. Condra, G. E., E. C. Reed, and O. J. Scherer, 1940, 1950. Harper, J. L., 1960. Harvey, C. H., 1960. Luebke, L. O., 1964. Vondra, C. F., 1958.
1058 Fairy Plume, Oregon, red and black plume agate, Oregon?. Adv., Herbert Wm. Lawson, The Mineralogist, v. 18, no. 12, p. 581; Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 6, p. 464.
1059 Fairyland Agate, Georgia, --- see Savannah River Fairyland Agate.
1060 Falkland Islands Chalcedony, Falkland Islands, term seen in adv., The Gem Exchange, Hobbies, v. 44, no. 9, p. 112.
1061 Fan Agate, see Dake (1934d) who used the term for agates from the Medford, Oregon area that have black inclusions that he suggested are organic and are not to be confused with dendrites. His description suggested they were similar to ballistic aggregates.
1062 Fancy Jasper, India, ...gray, brown, color illustration, adv., Harry Sering Co., Lapidary Journal, v. 32, no. 3, p. 678-679
1063 Fancy India Jaspers, India, to green, variegated, adv., Shale's, Lapidary Journal, v. 15, no. 5, p. 537.
1064 Fang Hill, China, site near Luhe, Jiangsu Province, China, from which Xu, Buseck and Luo (1999, p. 542-545) that provided agate from a fine-grained conglomerate of Tertiary age that they used in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope studies of length slow chalcedony.
1065 Fan-Tan Agate, no locality, no description, adv., Gem Center, U.S.A., Lapidary Journal, v. 20, no. 7, p. 867.
1066 Feather Agate, no locality, no description, adv., Gem Center, U.S.A., Lapidary Journal, v. 19, no. 10, p. 1140.
1067 Feather Sagenite, Mexico, no description, adv., Al Arnold, Lapidary Journal, v. 30, no.9, p. 2196.
1068 Featherstone agate, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), blue and lilac plus white, Zeitner (1968, p. 960-966).
1069 Feminine Carnelian, pale red or yellowish red carnelian cf. Bauer (1896, p. 508).
1070 Fenella Den, Scotland, historic locality in Kincardinshire that has paid agates from the the lower Old Red Sandstone of Early Devonian Age and recorded by Heddle (1901, p. 75), Rodgers (1975, p. 86) and Macpherson (1989, p. 19).
1071 Fern Agate, no locality, no description, adv., Orange Coast Gem Crafts, Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 3, p. 220.
1072 Fern Agate, India, ...rare dendritic, Name appears in 1954 catalogue for Gem Exchange (Gem Village), Bayfield, Colorado, p. 1. The above suggests this is different material than the green moss agate from India; it may be the same as the cream or white material with mostly black dendrites (Mocha Stone) that has become popular at shows in the middle 1990's.
1073 Fern Agate, Wyoming, no description, Name appears in 1954 catalogue for Gem Exchange (Gem Village), Bayfield, Colorado, p. 8.
1074 Fern Jasper (trees)? adv., Tynsky's, Rocks and Minerals, v. 42, no. 12, p. 958.
1075 Fernley, Lyon County, Nevada, agatized wood site that was recorded by Strong (1966, p. 19, 20).
1076 Ferruginous, commonly used adjective for describing red or red brown jaspers, agates, etc., that derive their coloration from iron staining.
1077 Ferryden, Angusshire, Scotland, historic locality. Heddle (1901, p. 75) used the spelling Ferry Den, which has precedence but Rodgers (1975, p. 84) and Field (1989, p. 16) use the single word spelling.
1078 Ferry Den, Forafshire---Montrose, Scotland, historic locality recorded by Heddle (1901, p. 75) who stated A...thickly studding the stones of which the houses are built.@ Rodgers (1975, p. 36, 84) referred to >Ferrydenand Blue= and Macpherson (1989, p. 19) used the spelling Ferryden for this site. The agates are from lavas in the lower Old Red Sandstone of Early Devonian Age.
1079 Festungsachat, German, fortification agate. See Hintze (1915, p. 1472), Liesegang (1915, p.3, 21, 27, 61) and Gaertner (1971, p.20, 21).
1080 Fiddlers Canyon Agate, Utah, for Fiddlers Canyon, 37o 42' 54" N and 113o 01' 55" W, near Cedar City, Iron County, Utah. Often blue agate.
1081 Field Road (agate, jasper, jasp-agate), California, for outcrops near Field Road Exit, I-15, in or near S 1/2 sec. 16 and N 1/2 sec. 21, T. 11 N., R. 4 E., San Bernardino County, California, Alvord Mountains East Quadrangle, U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 minute series (Topographic). Mitchell (1986, p. 71). See Alvord Mountains.
1082 Field Siding (jasper, agate, palm wood), California, for outcrops near Field Siding, in or near S 1/2 secs. 34, 35, T. 11 N., R. 4 E., San Bernardino County, California, Manix Quadrangle, U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 minute series, (Topographic). Mitchell (1969, p. 70). See also Strong (1971, p. 37)
1083 Field Stones, a generic term used by McManus (1941, p. 112) to describe agate, jasper, and other gem rough found in open fields.
1084 Fiesta Agate, no locality, no description, adv., GoodnowÆs, Lapidary Journal, v. 43, no. 9, p. 125.
1085 Fife, Scotland, large agate procucing area that was recorded by Fallick et al (1985, p. 672-674). Rodgers (1975, p. 41-48) detailed numerous localities in Fifeshire, as did Macpherson (1989, p. 19, 38-45) and Field (1989, p. 16).
1086 Fig Wood, California, two tone brown grains, adv., Gem Specialties, Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 5, p. 360.
1087 Fine Line Jasper, South Dakota, no description, adv., Cab-n-Facet, Lapidary Journal, v. 21, no. 8, p. 979.
1088 Fine Line Lace Agate, Chihuahua, Mexico. Cross (1996, p. 74) suggested that this is a Crazy Lace Agate with very fine, distinct bands.
1089 Finella Den, Scotland, spelling for Fenella Den, used by Macpherson (1989, p. 19).
1090 Finger Agate, Botswana, refers to either a stalk aggregate or a stalactite that is covered with drusy quartz. See Beck (1976, p. 836-840).
1091 Fire Agate, agate with iridescent limonite inclusions, originally described as such, California, Arizona, Mexico....illustration, adv., International Fire Agate Co., Lapidary Journal, v.31, no. 5, p. 1089.
1092 Fire Agate, manufactured stone, a red glass with reflective flakes to give a spangled appearance or doublets with reflected flakes cemented between layers to give spangled appearance. Also called French Opal" The Mineralogist, 1938, v. 6, no. 3, p. 21.
1093 Fire Agate, California. adv., Gem Arts, Rocks and Minerals, v. 25, no. 11, 12, p. 632
1094 Fire Agate;, California, adv., California House of Rocks, Earth Science Digest, v. 6, no. 6, p. 48.
1095 Fire Agate Opal, California? no description, adv., Ed. Rochester, Lapidary Journal, v. 1, no. 3, p. 130.
1096 Fire-Engine Jasper, Texas, a fine red jasper from gravels of the Brazos River in eastern Texas recorded by Hudson (1986, p. 47).
1097 Fire Lake Jasper, no locality, no description, adv., Aleta's Rock Shop, Lapidary Journal, v. 35, no. 7, p. 1482.
1098 Fire Palm Root, Calico Mountains area, California, Anon, 1978, p. 1139, Lapidary Journal.
1099 Fire Stone, Africa, ...lovely yellow, green, brown veins, adv., Murray American Corporation, Rock & Gem, v. 3, no. 8, p. 13. May not be an agate or jasper. Check out further.
1100 Fischer Stone, a laboratory created dendritic agate made by immersing translucent chalcedony in a solution containing the Cu+2 ion and bringing about the reduction of the ion to Cu to cause the dendrites to form beneath the surface of the slab. Johnson and others (2000, p. 170, 171) have also recorded artificially produced tin dendrites in chalcedony. See Fischer (1972, 1991).
1101 Fish Egg Agate (=silicified oolite), South Dakota, Nebraska, reported west of Scenic, South Dakota, Zeitner, J. C., (1954, p. 9-10; 1959, p. 42-54). Also, adv., Allan Branham, The Mineralogist, v. 14, no. 9, p. 469. Zeitner (1964, p. 350) stated this was a term used locally in South Dakota to describe material with tiny, round brown, red, orange, yellow, or white spots that was collected from near Kadoka, Oelrich, Hot Springs, and Fairburn South Dakota. This material is a silicified oolite and has also be found in the basal Chadron Formation of Oligocene age in outcrops in Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The term is probably now generic, referring to any agate with oolites. Clark (1998) has produced a lengthy treatise on these stones and covers their sources, geographic and stratigraphic relationships.
1102 Fish Eye (=eye?) Agate, sub-variety of Lake Superior Agate, adv., The Gem Exchange, The Mineralogist, v. 7, no. 2, p. 185. The term "fish eye" (sic.) is used in an advertizement for Flame Agate from Mexico by Southern Gem and Mineral Company. See comments under flame agate. Zeitner (1964, p. 350) used this term to describe chacledony nodules with small bright spots found near Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua, Mexico. This may be a synnonym of Bean Agate in the context used by Zeitner, but Cross (1996, p. 61) suggests that these are a nodular variety of Apache Agate that have tiny red or orange spherulites in a clear matrix. Miller and Olsen (1967, p. 1314) used this term informally to describe pink, purple, and cream colored circular patches in agates from near Janos, Chihuahua, Mexico. Cross (1996, p. 61) called this a sub-variety of Apache Agate that tiny spherulites in a clear blue agate.
1103 Fitzgerald Agate, Georgia, for Fitzgerald, Ben Hill County, Georgia, Hudson (1982, p. 158-165).
1104 Five Island Agate, Five Islands, Nova Scotia, Canada, see Springer (1982, p. 1330-1332, 1338).
1105 Five Mile Point, Michigan, agate producing area on the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, referred to in a Web Page, Hunting Agate in the Keweenaw at:
1106 Flame Agate, Mexico, black deep red, green, red & black, adv., Mexican Trading Post, Rocks and Minerals v. 36, no. 1,2, p. 77.
1107 Flame Agate, Chihuahua, Mexico, red flame shaped formations, "fish eyes" (clusters of eyes). adv., Southern Gem & Mineral Co., Lapidary Journal, v. 11, no. 5, p. 539. [This is the earliest use of Flame Agate applying to Mexico material so far observed.] ...Mexico, flames in clear agate, adv., Gems by George, Lapidary Journal, v. 15, no. 4, p. 463. Cross (1996, p.76) suggested this was clear agate with red to red orange flame-like stringers included in a clear agate matrix. In England and Scotland, the term flame agate is used to describe a single band or several parallel bands of contrasting colors that form an acute angle at their apex and bend outward near the base producing a feature similar to a flame on a burning candle.
1108 Flame Agate Valley, Utah, site near Kanab, Utah, listed by Simpson (1975, p. 50, 51). This place name does not appear in the U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System (September, 1998).
1109 Flame Plume (=Carey Plume?), adv., H. E. Carey, Earth Science Digest, v. 1, no. 4, p. 19.
1110 Flamingo Plume (Agate), California, and white, adv., Western Gem Mines, Lapidary Journal, v. 8, no. 4, p. 353.
1111 Fleches d=amour, a term from the French for arrows of love. The term is used to describe sagenitic agate in adv., V. D. Hill, Hobbies, v. 43, no. 11, p. 107. Shipley (1971, p. 75) suggested the term was originally used to describe amethyst and was also applied to other needle-like inclusions.
1112 Flint River Jasper, Georgia, near Dawson, Georgia, Hudson (1982,p. 158-165).
1113 Floating Opal, no locality, no description, adv., Ernest Meier, Varlocoid Chemical Company, The Mineralogist, v. 3, no. 3, p. 25, (=Captive Opal?).
1114 Florida Agate, Florida? no description, may refer to Tampa Bay Agatized Coral or Suwannee River Agatized Coral, adv., Griegers, Lapidary Journal, v. 19, no. 1, p. 212.
1115 Flower Agate, Arizona, ...deep rose reds and yellows in a white to light blue, opaque to translucent background, adv., Rickey's Rocks, Lapidary Journal, v. 28, no. 4, p. 690.
1116 Flower Agate, Colorado, flowers and whorls in a background of clear to bluish chalcedony, adv., Paul Palmer, Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 1, p. 72; adv. J. Riley, Rocks and Minerals v. 25, no. 7, 8, p. 428; adv., Utah Gems and Minerals, Earth Science Digest, v. 1, no. 11, p. 24.
1117 Flower Agate, Nevada? flowered, plumy vines, adv., G. E. Johnston, Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 6, p. 470.
1118 Flower Agate, Utah? no further details, adv., Utah Gems and Minerals, The Mineralogist, v. 15, no. 10, p. 535.
1119 Flower Agate a term used for "Conchas", which see, to describe agatized salt-water mussel shells from Brazil, adv., Minex Lapidary Supplies, Lapidary Journal, v. 25, no. 2, p. 305.
1120 Flower Garden Agate, Colorado, a vein agate, bright red, yellow, orange, flowers, plumes, and moss. Adv., R. E. Meinzer, Lapidary Journal, v. 19, no. 1, p. 89.
1121 Flower Garden Agate, Mexico, ...mostly gold, tan, flesh color, adv., Goodnow Gems U.S.A., Rock & Gem, v. 4, no. 12, p. 3. ...similarities to lace agate, plume agate, and moss agate, adv., Goodnow Gems U.S.A., Rock & Gem, v. 4, no. 11, p. 3. Cross (1996, p. 77) suggested that these agates are from northeastern Chihuahua, Mexico, and that they occur in the same upper Cenozoic volcanic units that produce this kind of agate in Texas.
1122 Flower Garden agate, Texas, from Woodward Ranch, Brewster County, Texas. see Ossowski, 1964, p., yellow, color photographs, Slack (1966, p. 83, 84).
1123 Flowering Agate, Colorado, resembles large bouquets and rose beds, adv., W. S. Kettering, Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 3, p. 227
1124 Flowering Agate, Mexico? no further information, Merle's Rock Box, The Mineralogist, v. 26, no. 4,5, p. 137.
1125 Flowering jasper, see flower jasper
1126 Flowering Rose Agate, ...agate that resembles multicolored rosebuds and blooms under glass, no locality given, probably Colorado?, adv., W. S. Kettering, Lapidary Journal, v. 3, no. 5, p. 363; v. 3, no. 6, p. 461.
1127 Flower of Paradise Agate, Mexico? no description, adv., Southern Gem & Mineral Co., Lapidary Journal, v. 12, no. 2, p. 241. May be synonym of Bird of Paradise Agate.
1128 Flower of Paradise Agate (= Bird of Paradise Agate), adv., Southern Gem & Mineral, Lapidary Journal, v. 12, no. 4, p. 497. Cross (1996, p. 62) considered these terms to be synonyms.
1129 Flower Rim Jasper, Harney County, Oregon? no further data, a tan and red picture jasper that was offered at Don Wick's booth, Greater Kansas City Gem and Mineral Show, 1987.
1130 Flowers in Agate, (="Poppy Stone"), Nevada?, adv., Brown's Atelier, The Mineralogist, v. 14, no. 3, p. 149.
1131 Flower Stones, Washington, local name, jaspers found from Lake Crescent to Lake Quiniault, Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Anon., 1937, The Mineralogist, v. 5, no. 1, p. 40.
1132 Fluorescent Agate, descriptive term that may imply either that the agate is of fluorescent colors or shows fluorescence under ultraviolet light.
1133 Forest Fire Agate, Mexico, flames topped with red, adv., Gems by George, Lapidary Journal, v. 16, no. 4, p. 434.
1134 Forest Fire Flame Agate, Chihuahua, Mexico, term used by Cross (1996, p. 76) to describe clear agate with black flames topped by red, and mined at Hacienda Santa Gertrudas, southwest of Naica. See Flame Agate.
1135 Forsythia type pompon, Texas?, descriptive term used by Kyte (1973, p. 1696-1699, 1711-1717). color illustrations
1136 Fortification agate, descriptive, agates with bands that form reentrant and sharp angles similar to ancient fortifications (Bauer, 1896, p. 572).
1137 Fort Irwin Chapinite, Fort Irwin area, California, àpink to salmon, brecciated, adv., Romance Gems, Lapidary Journal, v. 45, no. 12, p. 141.
1138 Fortified agate, Botswana, adv., Harry Sering Company, Rocks and Minerals, v. 48, no. 10, p. 607.
1139 Fossil Agate, no locality, and white agate containing 40 million year old snail fossils, adv., M. W. Jackson & Associates, Rock and Gem, v. 1, no. 1, p. 16. The above description and 40 million year old date suggest a similarity to Turitella Agate of Wyoming.
1140 Fossil Coral, Florida, chalcedony pseudomorphs, Name appears in 1954 catalogue for Gem Exchange (Gem Village), Bayfield, Colorado, p. 4.
1141 Fossil Forest, Australia, no description, may be either a jasper or a silicified wood, adv., Australian, Rock & Gem, v. 4, no. 12, p. 76.
1142 Fourth of July Agate, Arizona, for Fourth of July Butte, 113o 07' 30" W, 33o 22' N, Maricopa County, Arizona. Chimney beds start in about secs. 25 and 36, T. 1 S., R. 8 W., and extend along Agua Caliente Road west, about 6 miles to 4th of July Peak (Butte), Fourth of July Butte Quadrangle, U. S. Geological Survey, 7.5 Minuter Series (Topographic). See Simpson & Mitchell, 1989.
1143 Freeman's brecciated khaki agate, Texas, a term used by Zeitner (1964, p. 89) to describe a particular moss agate from the Rio Grande river and terrace gravels from about Laredo to Brownsville, Texas. Such agate had a moss that was comparable to lichens. An agate that should be included under the heading of Rio Grande Agate.
1144 French Opal, manufactured stone, a glass with included reflective flakes or doublet with reflective flakes cemented between layers to give stone a spangled appearance. Also, French Opal. The Mineralogist, 1938, v. 6, no. 3, p. 21. Also, clear glass plates with mother of pearl cemented between layers, The Mineralogist, v. 24, no. 10, p. 366.
1145 Frieda Thunder Eggs, Frieda Ranch, Oregon, generally gray or white banded agates with green chlorite boundary between matrix and agate.
1146 Friend Ranch Thunder Eggs, Oregon, for Friend Ranch, central Oregon, thunder eggs with light gray body, black bands. See Sinkankas, 1976, p. 235, and Rodgers, 1970, p. 153.
1147 Friends Ranch Thundereggs, near Ashwood, Oregon, Rodgers (1971, p. 460-465).
1148 Friend's Oregon, no description, Cascade Lapidary, Lapidary Journal, v. 29, no. 10, p. 1864.
1149 Froststone is a term used by Lewis (1942, p. 116) to describe chalcedony with white opal inclusions and reported to be found in Muroc-Dry Lake and Randsburg, California, areas.
1150 Fruitcake Agate, Mexico? no location given, Merle's Rock Box, The Mineralogist, v. 26, no. 4, 5, p. 137.
1151 Frydstejn, Bohemia, Gotze, Plotze, Fuchs and Habermann (1999, p. 152, 153) suggested that agates from this site formed in a melaphyre and examined them by electron paramagnetic resonance, cathodoluminescence and trace element content.
1152 Fryite, Idaho, a term applied to a black and white banded jasper by Hanson (1956, p. 58-61) that is probably an invalid name.
1153 Fugitive Color, color lost when agate or other material is thinly slabbed. See Barnett (1954, p. 13-15).
1154 Fulton Agate Beds, Gateway, Oregon, name used for Priday agate beds from about 1950 to 1960, while type locality was owned by Fulton Ranch. See advertisements in the Mineralogist in that era. First observed advertizement, The Mineralogist, v. 19, no. 4, p. 210.

About the Agate Lexicon

The Agate Lexicon and glossary of amorphous and cryptocrystalline silica gems have been designed to be used in conjunction with the Agate Bibliography, which was compiled to be used by researchers, hobbyists, historians, lapidaries and other individuals which have an interest in these stones. Numerous localities are listed here but this does not imply that the sites are available for collectors or collecting. Many of the sites are historic, depleted, are on private property or are protected by legal leases or claims and some are now on protected sites such as parks, nature preserves, or historic areas. Wherever possible, stratigraphic details are listed, but the user must always refer back to the original citations. Map information has been derived from 7.5' x 7.5' topographic maps issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and latitude and longitude have been derived mostly from Geographic Names Information System of the USGS.

Authors should not cite the Agate Bibliography or Agate Lexicon as a source in their published or unpublished works but should cite only those publications listed therein.

Named varieties of agates, jaspers, etc., have created special problems for both scientific researchers and historians. We have recognized at least two different usages of names. Some names appear to have geologic / historic validity, as they were described along with the lithology / geography of a region. Some names were introduced simply as trade names to boost sales of gem dealers. In the former case, the name will be followed by appropriate literary citation as to who first used the name and in what context. In the latter case, an advertisement (abbreviated adv.) is the first published record or public notice. We have tried to find the earliest citation in either case and the user should keep in mind that older citations unknown to us may exist. Advertisements are not cited to generate business but to simply give a historic source; many of the firms appearing in the citations are indeed no longer in existence.

Cited materials are generally only from accessible sources such as professional journals, magazines, hobbyist journals, open file reports of government agencies, newspapers, etc. Bulletins issued by local clubs and societies are generally not cited with the exception of those special publications that were actually made for public distribution.

Wherever possible, imagery of one or more specimens of named agate varieties, structures, patterns, etc. are provided. Images have been provided by several sources and are not to be utilized in other pages without the consent of the image owner.